The largest salt-gradient solar pond in the U. S. occupies an area of 2020 m2 and was installed for only $35/m2. The pond has a storage layer of 1.6 m consisting of 18 percent sodium chloride, a l-m gradient zone and a 0.4-m top convective zone. After 1.5 yr of operation, the storage temperature reached a maximum of 64°C in July and a minimum of 28°C in February. During July-September 1979, 143.5 GJ (136 million Btu) of heat was utilized. Under steady-state conditions, the pond is conservatively predicted to deliver over 1015 GJ/yr (962 million Btu) of heat to be used principally for heating an outdoor swimming pool in the summer and an adjacent recreation building from October to December each year. Based upon a 15-yr depreciation of the installation costs, the cost of this heat, $8.95/GJ ($9.45/million Btu) is already below the cost of heating with fuel oil. Maintenance of water clarity, corrosion of metallic components, and the assurance of the containment of the pond water have been the principal operational concerns and will require further study.
Construction and Startup Performance of the Miamisburg Salt-Gradient Solar Pond
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Wittenberg, L. J., and Harris, M. J. (February 1, 1981). "Construction and Startup Performance of the Miamisburg Salt-Gradient Solar Pond." ASME. J. Sol. Energy Eng. February 1981; 103(1): 11–16. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3266197
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