Class 2 and 3 nuclear piping is designed according to the allowable stress design (ASD) method used in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) code, Sec. III, Division 1, NC and ND-3600 according to which safety factors applied to the strength of steel (resistance) provide acceptable safety margins for the piping design. This paper describes the development of design equations according to the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) method for loads that cause primary stress such as sustained weight, internal pressure, and earthquake for different levels of piping operation. The LRFD method differs from the ASD since multiple factors, applied separately to each load and the strength of steel, provide safety margins that correspond to a known and acceptable probability of failure for the piping. Load combinations are provided, statistical properties for the variables under consideration are presented and the partial safety factors are moreover illustrated for different values of the target reliability index.
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) of Nuclear Straight Pipes for Loads That Cause Primary Stress
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Avrithi, K., and Ayyub, B. M. (March 31, 2010). "Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) of Nuclear Straight Pipes for Loads That Cause Primary Stress." ASME. J. Pressure Vessel Technol. April 2010; 132(2): 021101. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4000976
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