Older adults (>75 years old) may suffer from social isolation, social inactivity, or loneliness due to physical and cognitive disabilities as well as lifestyle adjustments resulting from old age [1,2]. Socially assistive robots can be used as an effective technology for the elderly to provide social interaction and cognitive assistance with activities of daily living. For example, they can support older adults with self-maintenance tasks (e.g., eating, grooming, and dressing), recreational activities (e.g., playing music and games), etc.

In order to promote natural and social human–robot interaction (HRI), and provide the elderly with suitable assistance, robots would need to be equipped with emotional intelligence. For example, they would need to have the ability to consider and respond to the emotions, moods, or affect of the person with whom they are interacting [2].

Older adults, including those with dementia, communicate their affective states using facial...

You do not currently have access to this content.