Cable-driven parallel robots (CDPRs) have been widely used in engineering fields because of their significant advantages including high load-bearing capacity, large workspace, and low inertia. However, the impact of convergence speed and solution accuracy of optimization approaches on optimal performances can become a key issue when it comes to the optimal design of CDPR applied to large storage space. An adaptive adjustment inertia weight particle swarm optimization (AAIWPSO) algorithm is proposed for the multi-objective optimal design of CDPR. The kinematic and static models of CDPR are established based on the principle of virtual work. Subsequently, two performance indices including workspace and dexterity are derived. A multi-objective optimization model is established based on performance indices. The AAIWPSO algorithm introduces an adaptive adjustment inertia weight to improve the convergence efficiency and accuracy of traditional particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Numerical examples demonstrate that final convergence values of the objective function by the AAIWPSO algorithm can almost be 14∼20% and 19∼40% higher than those by the PSO algorithm and genetic algorithm (GA) for the optimal design of CDPR with different configurations and masses of end-effectors, respectively.