Single crystal Ge is a semiconductor that has broad applications, especially in manipulation of infrared light. Diamond machining enables the efficient production of surfaces with tolerances required by the optical industry. During machining of anisotropic single crystals, the cutting direction with respect to the in-plane lattice orientation plays a fundamental role in the final quality of the surface and subsurface. In this study, on-axis face turning experiments were performed on an undoped (111)Ge wafer to investigate the effects of crystal anisotropy and feedrate on the surface and subsurface conditions. Atomic force microscopy and scanning white light interferometry were used to characterize the presence of brittle fracture on the machined surfaces and to evaluate the resultant surface roughness. Raman spectroscopy was performed to evaluate the residual stresses and lattice disorder induced by the tool during machining. Nanoindentation with Berkovich and cube corner indenter tips was performed to evaluate elastic modulus, hardness, and fracture toughness of the machined surfaces and to study their variations with feedrate and cutting direction. Post-indentation studies of selected indentations were also performed to characterize the corresponding quasi-plasticity mechanisms. It was found that an increase of feedrate produced a rotation of the resultant force imparted by the tool indicating a shift from indentation-dominant to cutting-dominant behavior. Fracture increased with the feedrate and showed a higher propensity when the cutting direction belonged to the family.