Abstract

Although wrist guards are available to prevent the wrist injuries that are frequently sustained in snowboarding, there is no mandated performance standard for these wrist guards as there is for other sports protection equipment. This study investigates whether the standard specified for safety gear in roller sports (EN 14120) can also be applied to snowboarding equipment. Representatives of the different designs of snowboarding wrist protectors available were tested in a manner similar to that defined in EN 14120. The damping characteristics of the products were investigated in drop tests, and wrist extension properties were studied using bending tests. In general the test results indicate that the roller sports standard is also applicable to snowboarding products; however, adjustments to the test conditions and the performance requirements need to be discussed. This relates, first of all, to the damping test conditions, because most products failed the performance criteria. In addition, a higher upper threshold value in the bending test (currently 55°) seems to be more related to falls observed in snowboarding. Furthermore, the influence of test conditions such as the temperature needs to be checked. Nevertheless, the introduction of a modified standard should be a reasonable undertaking to improve the protective potential of wrist guards.

References

1.
Hayes
,
J.
and
Groner
,
J.
, “
The Increasing Incidence of Snowboard-Related Trauma
,”
J. Pediatr. Surg.
, Vol.
43
(
5
),
2008
, pp.
928
930
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2007.12.041
2.
Hagel
,
B.
, “
Skiing and Snowboarding Injuries
,”
Medicine and Sport Science
, Vol.
48
,
2005
, pp.
74
119
. https://doi.org/10.1159/000084284
3.
Sasaki
,
K.
,
Takagi
,
M.
,
Ida
,
H.
,
Yamakawa
,
M.
, and
Ogino
,
T.
, “
Severity of Upper Limb Injuries in Snowboarding
,”
Arch. Orthop. Trauma Surg.
, Vol.
119
,
1999
, pp.
292
295
. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004020050413
4.
Idzikowski
,
J. R.
,
Janes
,
P. C.
, and
Abott
,
P. J.
, “
Upper Extremity Snowboarding Injuries. Ten-Year Results from the Colorado Snowboard Injury Survey
,”
Am. J. Sports Med.
, Vol.
28
,
2000
, pp.
825
832
.
5.
Dohjima
,
T.
,
Sumi
,
Y.
,
Ohno
,
T.
,
Sumi
,
H.
, and
Shimizu
,
K.
, “
The Dangers of Snowboarding: A 9-Year Prospective Comparison of Snowboarding and Skiing Injuries
,”
Acta Orthop. Scand.
, Vol.
72
(
6
),
2001
, pp.
657
660
. https://doi.org/10.1080/000164701317269111
6.
Matsumoto
,
K.
,
Miyamoto
,
K.
, and
Sumi
,
H.
, “
Upper Extremity Injuries in Snowboarding and Skiing: A Comparative Study
,”
Clin. J. Sport Med.
, Vol.
12
,
2002
, pp.
354
359
. https://doi.org/10.1097/00042752-200211000-00006
7.
Matsumoto
,
K.
,
Sumi
,
Y.
, and
Shimizu
,
K.
, “
Wrist Fractures from Snowboarding: A Prospective Study for 3 Seasons from 1998 to 2001
,”
Clin. J. Sport Med.
, Vol.
14
,
2004
, pp.
64
71
. https://doi.org/10.1097/00042752-200403000-00003
8.
Chow
,
T. K.
,
Corbett
,
S. W.
, and
Farstad
,
D. J.
, “
Spectrum of Injuries from Snowboarding
,”
J. Trauma
, Vol.
41
(
2
),
1996
, pp.
321
325
. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005373-199608000-00021
9.
Davidson
,
T. M.
and
Laliotis
,
A. T.
, “
Snowboarding Injuries: A Four-Year Study with Comparison with Alpine Ski Injuries
,”
West. J. Med.
, Vol.
164
(
3
),
1996
, pp.
231
237
.
10.
Ferrera
,
P. C.
,
McKenna
,
D. P.
, and
Gilman
,
E. A.
, “
Injury Patterns with Snowboarding
,”
Am. J. Emerg. Med.
, Vol.
17
(
6
),
1999
, pp.
575
577
. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-6757(99)90199-7
11.
Campell
,
L. R.
,
1995
, “
Snowboard Accidents – A Swiss Multi-center Study 1992/93
,” Report,
Swiss Council for Accident Prevention
, Bern, Switzerland, http://www.bfu.ch/PDFLib/509_74.pdf (Last accessed February 28,
2012
).
12.
Dann
,
K.
,
Kristen
,
K.-H.
, and
Ring
,
G.
, “
Changes of Injury Pattern in Snowboarding in Relation to Skill Level
,”
Sportorthopädie – Sporttraumatologie
, Vol.
18
,
1995
, pp.
171
174
.
13.
Müller
,
R.
,
Brügger
,
O.
,
Mathys
,
R.
and
Stüssi
,
E.
, “
Snowboard-Unfälle” [Snowboarding Accidents]
,
Sportverletz Sportschaden
, Vol.
14
(
4
),
2000
, pp.
121
127
. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2000-8954
14.
Kim
,
K. J.
,
Alian
,
A. M.
,
Morris
,
W. S.
, and
Lee
,
Y. H.
, “
Shock Attenuation of Various Protective Devices for Prevention of Fall-Related Injuries of the Forearm/hand Complex
,”
Am. J. Sports Med.
, Vol.
34
,
2006
, pp.
637
643
. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546505281800
15.
DeGoede
,
K. M.
and
Ashton-Miller
,
J. A.
, “
Fall Arrest Strategy Affects Peak Hand Impact Force in Forward Fall
,”
J. Biomech.
, Vol.
35
,
2002
, pp.
834
848
. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9290(02)00011-8
16.
Chiu
,
J.
and
Robinovitch
,
S. N.
, “
Prediction of Upper Extremity Impact Forces during Falls on the Outstretched Hand
,”
J. Biomech.
, Vol.
31
,
1998
, pp.
1169
1176
. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9290(98)00137-7
17.
Greenwald
,
R. M.
,
Janes
,
P. C.
,
Swanson
,
S. C.
, and
McDonald
,
T. R.
, “
Dynamic Impact Response of Human Cadaveric Forearms Using a Wrist Brace
,”
Am. J. Sports Med.
, Vol.
26
,
1998
, pp.
825
830
.
18.
Moore
,
M.
,
Popovic
,
N.
,
Daniel
,
J.
,
Boyea
,
S.
, and
Polly
,
D.
, “
The Effect of a Wrist Brace on Injury Patterns in Experimentally Produced Distal Radial Fractures in a Cadaveric Model
,”
Am. J. Sports Med.
, Vol.
25
,
1997
, pp.
394
401
. https://doi.org/10.1177/036354659702500321
19.
Lewis
,
L. M.
,
West
,
O. C.
,
Standeven
,
J.
, and
Jarvis
,
H.
, “
Do Wrist Guards Protect against Fractures?
,”
Ann. Emerg. Med.
, Vol.
20
,
1997
, pp.
766
769
. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0196-0644(97)70198-7
20.
Schmitt
,
K. U.
,
Wider
,
D.
,
Michel
,
F. I.
,
Brügger
,
O.
,
Gerber
,
H.
, and
Denoth
,
J.
, “
Investigating the Wrist Load in Snowboard Backward Falls
,”
Proceedings of the 18th Congress of International Society of Safety in Skiing
, April 26–May 02, 2009,
Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
, ISSS - International Society for Skiing Safety (www.isssweb.com),
2009
.
21.
Schmitt
,
K. U.
,
Wider
,
D.
,
Michel
,
F. I.
,
Gerber
,
H.
, and
Denoth
,
J.
, “
Biomechanical Loading of the Wrist in Snowboarding Falls
,”
Proceedings of the 5th Dreiländerkongress
“Sport – mit Sicherheit gewinnen,” 5th Three-Nation-Congress on “Sports – Safety Wins,”
Magglingen, Switzerland
, September 3–5, 2009. Organized by the
Swiss Council for Accident Prevention (bfu)
Bern, Switzerland
,
2010
.
22.
Greenwald
,
R. M.
,
Calabro
,
S.
,
Thomas
,
N.
, and
Michel
,
F. I.
, “
An Instrumented Glove to Measure Wrist Biomechanics during Snowboard Falls
,”
19th International Congress on Ski Trauma and Skiing Safety
,
Keystone, CO
, May 1–7, 2011, ISSS – International Society for Skiing Safety (www.isssweb.com),
2011
.
23.
Ronning
,
R.
,
Ronning
,
I.
,
Gerner
,
T.
, and
Engebretsen
,
L.
, “
The Efficacy of Wrist Protectors in Preventing Snowboarding Injuries
,”
Am. J. Sports Med.
, Vol.
29
,
2001
, pp.
581
585
.
24.
Machold
,
W.
,
Kwansy
,
O.
,
Eisenhardt
,
P.
,
Kolonja
,
A.
,
Bauer
,
E.
, and
Lehr
,
S.
, “
Reduction of Severe Wrist Injuries in Snowboarding by an Optimized Protection Device: A Prospective Randomized Trial
,”
J. Trauma
, Vol.
52
,
2001
, pp.
517
520
. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005373-200203000-00016
25.
O’Neill
,
D.
, “
Wrist Injuries in Guarded versus Unguarded First Time Snowboarders
,”
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
, Vol.
409
,
2003
, pp.
91
95
. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.blo.0000057785.10364.dc
26.
Russel
,
K.
,
Hagel
,
B.
, and
Francescutti
,
L.
, “
The Effect of Wrist Guards on Wrist and Arm Injuries among Snowboarders: A Systematic Review
,”
Clin. J. Sport Med.
, Vol.
17
(
2
),
2007
, pp.
145
150
. https://doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0b013e31803f901b
27.
Bianchi
,
G.
,
Michel
,
F. I.
, and
Brügger
,
O.
, “
The Use of Wrist Protection amongst Snowboarders
,”
19th International Congress on Ski Trauma and Skiing Safety
,
Keystone, CO
, May 1–7, 2011, ISSS – International Society for Skiing Safety (www.isssweb.com),
2011
.
28.
EN 14120,
2007
, “
Protective Clothing—Wrist, Palm, Knee and Elbow Protectors for Users of Roller Sports Equipment—Requirements and Test Methods
,” Standard DIN EN 14120, German Institute for Standardization, Berlin, Germany.
29.
Hwang
,
I.
,
Kim
,
K.
,
Kaufmann
,
K.
,
Cooney
,
W.
, and
An
,
K.
, “
Biomechanical Efficiency of Wrist Guards as a Shock Isolator
,”
J. Biomech. Eng.
, Vol.
128
,
2006
, pp.
229
234
. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2165695
30.
Giacobetti
,
F. B.
,
Sharkey
,
P. F.
,
Bos-Giacobetti
,
M. A.
,
Hume
,
E. L.
, and
Taras
,
J. S.
, “
Biomechanical Analysis of the Effectiveness of In-line Skating Wrist Guards for Preventing Wrist Fractures
,”
Am. J. Sports Med.
, Vol.
25
,
1997
, pp.
23
25
. https://doi.org/10.1177/036354659702500215
31.
Binet
,
M.
,
Wadsworth
,
P.
, and
Rowlands
,
A.
, “
Prospective Study to Compare Efficacy of Different Designs of Wrist Protection for Snowboarders
,”
19th International Congress on Ski Trauma and Skiing Safety
,
Keystone, CO
, May 1–7, 2011, ISSS – International Society for Skiing Safety (www.isssweb.com),
2011
.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.