Continued study has gone on examining a discrete modal model of intake and exhaust breathing of four-stroke engines. By matching a Helmholtz defined pressure excursion to specific average flow velocities, maximum ram supercharge on intake and scavenging on exhaust are possible. Inclusion of all engine parameters allows for a quick, accurate design of an intake/exhaust pair. Trends are noted easily and errors can be corrected quickly. The intake and exhaust systems can be designed to compliment the additional power possible when a turbocharger, Roots blower, or some other supercharger system is added to the engine. Improved performance, economy, and emissions characteristics are possible with the careful matching of the manifolds to the operating conditions.

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