Details of the horseshoe vortex formation around a cylinder were studied to determine the flow parameters that affect the flow separation in front of the cylinder. An experimental setup consisting of a circular cylinder vertically mounted on the floor of the wind tunnel test section was assembled. The approaching turbulent boundary layer was four centimeters thick. Pressures were measured on the cylinder surface and the tunnel floor with surface static pressure taps. Surface flow visualizations were accomplished to locate singlar points and the size of separation region on the endwall surface. Interior mean and fluctuating velocity data and Reynolds stresses in front of the cylinder were nonintrusively measured with a two-component Laser Doppler Anemometer system. Freestream stagnation at the endwall/cylinder surface occurred in all cases, but two types of separation were identified in this investigation. The flow pattern in the separation region depends on the freestream momentum and the boundary layer displacement thickness. A large-scale fully developed vortex was formed in the plane of symmetry for low approaching freestream velocities. A fully developed vortex was not present at higher approach velocities. Maximum production of turbulent kinetic energy was measured around the core of the vortex when fully formed.
Effect of Freestream Velocity on the Three-Dimensional Separated Flow Region in Front of a Cylinder
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Eckerle, W. A., and Awad, J. K. (March 1, 1991). "Effect of Freestream Velocity on the Three-Dimensional Separated Flow Region in Front of a Cylinder." ASME. J. Fluids Eng. March 1991; 113(1): 37–44. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2926493
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