Since 1976, the author has programmed, developed and applied a versatile two-dimensional geothermal simulator for many interesting applications in cold regions engineering. This paper concentrates on applications to problems which have not been hitherto easily solved by other available geothermal models. Some of the important capabilities of the HAL simulator are: (i) radial or cartesian coordinate options, (ii) convective ground water flow component, (iii) simple data entry, (iv) ability to specify internal “pipes,” or areas of specified temperature, (v) monthly surface temperature and snow cover inputs as boundary conditions. The first application involves a steel pile, embedded in warm permafrost. A circular cryogenic storage tank is studied next, and the effectiveness of an insulation layer is illustrated. The convection option in the program is invoked when studying the effects of ground water flow around a series of vertical freeze pipes. Finally, the thermal degradation beneath an Arctic lake is studied, and the subsequent refreezing and growth of a pingo has been simulated.

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