This paper presents the results of an experimentally validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for a data center with fully implemented fan curves on both the servers and the computer room air conditioner (CRAC). Both open and contained cold aisle systems are considered in this study. This work is divided into sections for the baseline system (prior to installing containment) calibration and the fully contained cold aisle system calibration and leakage characterization. In the open system, the fan curve of the CRAC unit is extracted from the manufacturer data, while the fan curve of the load banks is obtained through experimental measurements. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the average model predictions. In the fully contained cold aisle system, a detailed containment CFD model is developed based on experimental measurements. The model is validated by comparing the flow rate through the perforated floor tiles and the rack inlet temperatures with the experimental measurements. The CFD results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data with an average relative error between the measured and computed flow rate of approximately 6.7%. Temperature measurements are used to calibrate the sources of leakage in the containment and rack mounting rails. The temperature measurements and the CFD results agree well with an average difference of less than 1 °C. This study provides important modeling guidelines for data centers. In order to predict the performance of contained cold aisle systems flow distribution, it is crucial that physics based models of fan curves, server internal resistances, detailed rack models, and other design details are all accurate and experimentally verified.
Experimentally Validated Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for a Data Center With Cold Aisle Containment
State University of New York,
Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received February 11, 2014; final manuscript received December 5, 2014; published online January 21, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Madhusudan Iyengar.
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Alkharabsheh, S. A., Sammakia, B. G., and Shrivastava, S. K. (June 1, 2015). "Experimentally Validated Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for a Data Center With Cold Aisle Containment." ASME. J. Electron. Packag. June 2015; 137(2): 021010. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4029344
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