Chemical composition–moisture sensitivity relationship of LiNixMnyCo1−x−yO2 (NMC) cathode materials was investigated by exploring crystal structures, surface properties, and electrochemical performance behaviors of various commercial NMC powders: LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC111), LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC532), LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NMC622), and LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811). The NMC powders were stored in different moisture conditions: moisture-free, humidified air, or immersed in water. Rietveld refinement analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) data and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the crystal structure changes and the evolution of particle surfaces morphologies. The effect of moisture contamination on the electrochemical properties of NMC cathodes was studied by galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The moisture contamination resulted in either structural disorder or unwanted surficial deposition products, which increased a charge-transfer impedance and consequent performance degradation of battery cells. The results showed that NMC’s moisture vulnerability increased with Ni content (x) despite protective coatings on commercial particles, which stressed the necessity of alternative surface passivation strategies of Ni-rich NMC for broad applications such as electric vehicles and electrified aircraft propulsion.