Knee joint stability is important in maintaining normal joint motion during activities of daily living. Joint instability not only disrupts normal motion but also plays a crucial role in the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis. Our goal was to examine knee joint coronal plane stability under varus or valgus loading and to understand the relative contributions of the mechanisms that act to stabilize the knee in response to varus–valgus moments, namely, load distribution between the medial and lateral condyles and the ligaments. A robot testing system was used to determine joint stability in human cadaveric knees as described by the moment versus angular rotation behavior under varus and valgus loads at extension and at 30 deg and 90 deg of flexion. The anatomic knee joint was more stable in response to valgus than varus moments, and stability decreased with flexion angle. The primary mechanism for providing varus–valgus stability was the redistribution of the contact force on the articular surfaces from both condyles to a single condyle. Stretching of the collateral ligaments provided a secondary stabilizing mechanism after the lift-off of a condyle occurred. Compressive loads applied across the knee joint, such as would occur with the application of muscle forces, enhanced the ability of the articular surface to provide varus–valgus moment, and thus, helped stabilize the joint in the coronal plane. Coupled internal/external rotations and anteroposterior and medial–lateral translations were variable and in the case of the rotations were often as large as the varus–valgus rotations created by the applied moment.
Asymmetric Varus and Valgus Stability of the Anatomic Cadaver Knee and the Load Sharing Between Collateral Ligaments and Bearing Surfaces
and Systems Biology Program,
Weill Cornell Graduate School
of Medical Sciences,
Manuscript received June 25, 2013; final manuscript received April 20, 2014; accepted manuscript posted May 14, 2014; published online June 3, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Tammy L. Haut Donahue.
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Wang, X., Malik, A., Bartel, D. L., Wickiewicz, T. L., and Wright, T. (June 3, 2014). "Asymmetric Varus and Valgus Stability of the Anatomic Cadaver Knee and the Load Sharing Between Collateral Ligaments and Bearing Surfaces." ASME. J Biomech Eng. August 2014; 136(8): 081005. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4027662
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