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Research Papers

Optimal Hybrid Power Energy Systems for Residential Communities in Saudi Arabia

[+] Author and Article Information
Ammar H. A. Dehwah

Building Systems Program, Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering Department,
University of Colorado at Boulder,
Boulder, CO 80309
e-mail: ammar.dehwah@colorado.edu

Moncef Krarti

Building Systems Program, Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering Department,
University of Colorado at Boulder,
Boulder, CO 80309
e-mail: moncef.krarti@colorado.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Solar Energy Engineering: Including Wind Energy and Building Energy Conservation. Manuscript received July 10, 2018; final manuscript received April 18, 2019; published online May 20, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ming Qu.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 141(6), 061002 (May 20, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: SOL-18-1312; doi: 10.1115/1.4043633 History: Received July 10, 2018; Accepted April 24, 2019

To meet the increasing energy demand and to shave the peak, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is currently planning to invest more on renewable energy (RE) seeking diversity of energy resources. Through the integration of demand-side management measures and renewable energy distributed generation (DG) systems, the study outlined in this paper aims at investigating the potential of hybrid renewable energy systems in supplying energy demands for residential communities in an oil-rich country. The residential community considered in this study, located in the eastern region of KSA, has an annual electrical usage of 1174 GWh and an electrical peak load of 335 MW that are met solely by the grid. The results of the analyses indicated that the implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency measures (EEMs) reduced the electricity usage by 38% and peak demand by 51% as well as CO2 emissions by 38%. Although the analysis of the hybrid systems showed that purchasing electricity from the grid is the best option with a levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of $0.1/kWh based on the current renewable energy market and economic conditions of KSA, RE systems can be cost-effective to meet the loads of the residential communities under specific electricity prices and capital cost levels.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Feasibility analysis methodology for integrated DG systems

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Fig. 2

Comparison of the calibrated model against energy bills for the three buildings

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Fig. 3

DG hybrid model to meet the electrical load for a residential community

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Fig. 4

Operating strategies for an optimized DG system for (a) January 21st and (b) June 21st

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Fig. 5

Sensitivity analysis for PV capital cost and utility rate (LCOE superimposed)

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Fig. 6

Sensitivity analysis for wind capital cost and utility rate (LCOE superimposed)

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Fig. 7

Monthly electricity production from (a) PV/GRID system and (b) wind/grid system

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Fig. 8

CO2 cost penalty and grid electricity price sensitivity analysis (LCOE superimposed)

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Fig. 9

Sensitivity analysis for cost-related factors

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Fig. 10

Initial optimal hybrid system for the baseline and EEMs-based load profile scenarios for the residential community in Al-khubar: (a) LCOE and (b) LCC

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Fig. 11

Optimal hybrid system at a utility cost of $0.15/kWh for (a) baseline and (b) EEMs load scenarios

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