Research Papers

Modeling and Control of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power Plant With Fault Ride-Through Capability

[+] Author and Article Information
Ali Q. Al-Shetwi

Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,
University Malaysia Pahang (UMP),
Pekan 26600, Pahang, Malaysia
e-mail: alialshetwi@yahoo.com

Muhamad Zahim Sujod

Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,
University Malaysia Pahang (UMP),
Pekan 26600, Pahang, Malaysia
e-mail: zahim@ump.edu.my

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received May 28, 2017; final manuscript received November 14, 2017; published online December 22, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Geoffrey T. Klise.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 140(2), 021001 (Dec 22, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: SOL-17-1197; doi: 10.1115/1.4038591 History: Received May 28, 2017; Revised November 14, 2017

According to modern grid codes (GCs), high penetration of photovoltaic power plants (PVPPs) to the utility grid requires a reliable PV generation system by achieving fault ride-through (FRT) requirements. In order to meet these requirements, there are two major issues that should be addressed to keep the inverter connected during grid fault. The two issues are the ac over-current and dc-link over-voltage that may cause disconnection or damage to the grid inverter. In this paper, the control of single-stage PVPP inverters is developed to address these issues and enhance FRT capability. The proposed control scheme introduces the dc brake chopper circuit and current limiter to protect the inverter and ride through the fault smoothly with no perceptible overcompensation. A 1.5 MW PVPP connected into the Malaysian grid and modeled in simulink is utilized to explain the proposed control scheme. The simulation results presented demonstrate the effectiveness of the overall proposed control strategy to ride through different types of faults and to help to ensure the safety of the system equipment.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Mahela, O. P. , and Shaik, A. G. , 2017, “ Comprehensive Overview of Grid Interfaced Solar Photovoltaic Systems,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 68(Pt. 1), pp. 316–332. [CrossRef]
Petrović, I. , Šimić, Z. , and Vražić, M. , 2014, “ Advanced PV Plant Planning Based on Measured Energy Production Results-Approach and Measured Data Processing,” Adv. Electr. Comput. Eng., 14(1), pp. 49–54. [CrossRef]
Ali, Q. , Muhamad Zahim, S. , and Noor Lina, R. , 2015, “ A Review of the Fault Ride Through Requirements in Different Grid Codes concerning Penetration of PV System to the Electric Power Network,” ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci., 10(21), pp. 9906–9912. https://www.noexperiencenecessarybook.com/eo3Le/a-review-of-the-fault-ride-through-requirements-in-different-grid-codes.html
Cabrera-Tobar, A. , Bullich-Massagué, E. , Aragüés-Peñalba, M. , and Gomis-Bellmunt, O. , 2016, “ Review of Advanced Grid Requirements for the Integration of Large Scale Photovoltaic Power Plants in the Transmission System,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 62, pp. 971–987. [CrossRef]
Marinopoulos, A. , Papandrea, F. , Reza, M. , Norrga, S. , Spertino, F. , and Napoli, R. , 2011, “ Grid Integration Aspects of Large Solar PV Installations: LVRT Capability and Reactive Power/Voltage Support Requirements,” IEEE Trondheim PowerTech, Trondheim, Norway, June 19–23, pp. 1–8.
Etxegarai, A. , Eguia, P. , Torres, E. , Buigues, G. , and Iturregi, A. , 2017, “ Current Procedures and Practices on Grid Code Compliance Verification of Renewable Power Generation,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 71, pp. 191–202. [CrossRef]
Ou, T.-C. , 2012, “ A Novel Unsymmetrical Faults Analysis for Microgrid Distribution Systems,” Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., 43(1), pp. 1017–1024. [CrossRef]
Granizo, R. , Blánquez, F. R. , Rebollo, E. , and Platero, C. A. , 2015, “ A Novel Ground Fault Non-Directional Selective Protection Method for Ungrounded Distribution Networks,” Energies, 8(2), pp. 1291–1316. [CrossRef]
Ou, T.-C. , 2013, “ Ground Fault Current Analysis With a Direct Building Algorithm for Microgrid Distribution,” Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., 53, pp. 867–875. [CrossRef]
Obi, M. , and Bass, R. , 2016, “ Trends and Challenges of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems–A Review,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 58, pp. 1082–1094. [CrossRef]
Perpinias, I. , Papanikolaou, N. , and Tatakis, E. , 2015, “ Fault Ride Through Concept in Low Voltage Distributed Photovoltaic Generators for Various Dispersion and Penetration Scenarios,” Sustainable Energy Technol. Assess., 12, pp. 15–25. [CrossRef]
Yang, Y. , Wang, H. , and Blaabjerg, F. , 2014, “ Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Considering Grid Requirements,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 50(6), pp. 4065–4076. [CrossRef]
Yang, Y. , Blaabjerg, F. , and Zou, Z. , 2013, “ Benchmarking of Grid Fault Modes in Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 49(5), pp. 2167–2176. [CrossRef]
Worku, M. Y. , and Abido, M. A. , 2015, “ Grid-Connected PV Array With Supercapacitor Energy Storage System for Fault Ride Through,” IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), Seville, Spain, Mar. 17–19, pp. 2901–2906.
Zhang, Y. , Ma, L. , and Zheng, T. Q. , 2011, “ Application of Feedback Linearization Strategy in Voltage Fault Ride-Through for Photovoltaic Inverters,” 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON), Melbourne, Australia, Nov. 7–10, pp. 4666–4671.
Islam, G. M. S. , Al-Durra, A. , Muyeen, S. M. , and Tamura, J. , 2011, “ Low Voltage Ride Through Capability Enhancement of Grid Connected Large Scale Photovoltaic System,” 37th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON), Melbourne, Australia, Nov. 7–10, pp. 884–889.
Bae, Y. , Vu, T.-K. , and Kim, R.-Y. , 2013, “ Implemental Control Strategy for Grid Stabilization of Grid-Connected PV System Based on German Grid Code in Symmetrical Low-to-Medium Voltage Network,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., 28(3), pp. 619–631. [CrossRef]
Benz, C. H. , Franke, W.-T. , and Fuchs, F. W. , 2010, “ Low Voltage Ride Through Capability of a 5 kW Grid-Tied Solar Inverter,” 14th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE/PEMC), Ohrid, Macedonia, Sept. 6–8, pp. T12-13–T12-20.
Azit, A. , Sulaiman, S. , Hussein, Z. , Balakhrisnan, M. , Busrah, A. , Devaraju, P. , Mohamed, A. , Kumaran, R. , Ramasami, A. , and Ismail, M. , 2012, “TNB Technical Guidebook on Grid-Interconnection of Photovoltaic Power Generation System to LV and MV Networks,” Tenaga Nasional Berhad, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, pp. 1–38.
IEEE Power and Energy Society, 2009, “Project Based Learning (PBL),” Electrical Power System Competition (EPSCOM), Jan. 9–10, pp. 1–34.
Al-Shetwi, A. Q. , and Sujod, M. Z. , 2016, “ Modeling and Dynamics Study of Large Scale PV System Connected Malaysian Grid Under Different Fault Conditions,” IEEE International Conference on Advances in Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering (ICAEES), Putrajaya, Malaysia, Nov. 14–16, pp. 488–494.
Ünlü, M. , Camur, S. , Beşer, E. , and Arifoğlu, B. , 2015, “ A Current-Forced Line-Commutated Inverter for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Generation Systems,” Adv. Electr. Comput. Eng., 15(2), pp. 85–92. [CrossRef]
Jana, J. , Saha, H. , and Bhattacharya, K. D. , 2017, “ A Review of Inverter Topologies for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 72, pp. 1256–1270. [CrossRef]
Corba, Z. , Katic, V. , Popadic, B. , and Milicevic, D. , 2016, “ New String Reconfiguration Technique for Residential Photovoltaic System Generation Enhancement,” Adv. Electr. Comput. Eng., 16(1), pp. 19–26. [CrossRef]
Al-Shetwi, A. Q. , and Sujod, M. , 2016, “ Design and Economic Evaluation of Electrification of Small Villages in Rural Area in Yemen Using Stand-Alone PV System,” Int. J. Renewable Energy Res. (IJRER), 6(1), pp. 1442–1451. http://www.ijrer.org/ijrer/index.php/ijrer/article/view/3212
Al-Shetwi, A. Q. , and Muhamad Zahim, S. , 2016, “ Sizing and Design of PV Array for Photovoltaic Power Plant Connected Grid Inverter,” The National Conference for Postgraduate Research (NCON-PGR), Pekan, Pahang, Sept. 24–25, pp. 193–199. http://umpir.ump.edu.my/14606/
Ou, T.-C. , and Hong, C.-M. , 2014, “ Dynamic Operation and Control of Microgrid Hybrid Power Systems,” Energy, 66, pp. 314–323. [CrossRef]
Ou, T.-C. , Su, W.-F. , Liu, X.-Z. , Huang, S.-J. , and Tai, T.-Y. , 2016, “ A Modified Bird-Mating Optimization With Hill-Climbing for Connection Decisions of Transformers,” Energies, 9(9), p. 671. [CrossRef]
Ou, T.-C. , Lu, K.-H. , and Huang, C.-J. , 2017, “ Improvement of Transient Stability in a Hybrid Power Multi-System Using a Designed NIDC (Novel Intelligent Damping Controller),” Energies, 10(4), p. 488. [CrossRef]
Villalva, M. G. , Gazoli, J. R. , and Ruppert Filho, E. , 2009, “ Analysis and Simulation of the P&O MPPT Algorithm Using Alinearized PV Array Model,” Power Electronics Conference (COBEP), Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, Sept. 27–Oct. 1, pp. 189–195.
Hong, C.-M. , Ou, T.-C. , and Lu, K.-H. , 2013, “ Development of Intelligent MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) Control for a Grid-Connected Hybrid Power Generation System,” Energy, 50, pp. 270–279. [CrossRef]
Lee, J.-S. , and Lee, K. B. , 2013, “ Variable DC-Link Voltage Algorithm With a Wide Range of Maximum Power Point Tracking for a Two-String PV System,” Energies, 6(1), pp. 58–78. [CrossRef]
Khiavi, A. M. , Kangarlu, M. F. , Koozehkanani, Z. D. , Sobhi, J. , and Hosseini, S. H. , 2015, “ Single-Phase Multilevel Current Source Inverter With Reduced Device Count and Current Balancing Capability,” Adv. Electr. Comput. Eng., 15(3), pp. 111–116. [CrossRef]
Wu, H. , and Tao, X. , 2009, “ Three Phase Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Generation Technology With MPPT Function and Voltage Control,” IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems (PEDS), Taipei, Taiwan, Nov. 2–5, pp. 1295–1300.
bin Omar, A. M. , and binti Zainuddin, H. , 2014, “ Modeling and Simulation of Grid Inverter in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System,” Int. J. Renewable Energy Res. (IJRER), 4(4), pp. 949–957. http://ijrer.org/ijrer/index.php/ijrer/article/view/1681
Silvestre, S. , Chouder, A. , and Karatepe, E. , 2013, “ Automatic Fault Detection in Grid Connected PV Systems,” Sol. Energy, 94, pp. 119–127. [CrossRef]
Drews, A. , De Keizer, A. , Beyer, H. , Lorenz, E. , Betcke, J. , Van Sark, W. , Heydenreich, W. , Wiemken, E. , Stettler, S. , and Toggweiler, P. , 2007, “ Monitoring and Remote Failure Detection of Grid-Connected PV Systems Based on Satellite Observations,” Sol. Energy, 81(4), pp. 548–564. [CrossRef]
El Moursi, M. S. , Xiao, W. , and Kirtley , J. L., Jr. , 2013, “ Fault Ride Through Capability for Grid Interfacing Large Scale PV Power Plants,” IET Gener., Transm. Distrib., 7(9), pp. 1027–1036. [CrossRef]
Mirhosseini, M. , Pou, J. , and Agelidis, V. G. , 2015, “ Single-and Two-Stage Inverter-Based Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power Plants With Ride-Through Capability Under Grid Faults,” IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy, 6(3), pp. 1150–1159. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

General curve limits for FRT requirements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The Malaysian FRT requirements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The PV power station connected to the Malaysian grid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Maximum voltage, current, and power of the PVPP array at STC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Voltage of the dc-link in the system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Control scheme of the grid inverter

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Schematic diagram of the SRF-PLL

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Schematic diagram of the proposed FRT control strategy

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Flow diagram for the proposed FRT control

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The control of current limiter

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Simulation response of the PVPP with 60% voltage sag (2 LG) and 40% voltage drop without current limiter: (a) positive sequence of grid voltage in p.u., (b) grid voltage, and (c) grid current

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Simulation response of the PVPP with 60% voltage sag (2 LG)-40% voltage drop with adding current limiter: (a) positive sequence of grid voltage in p.u., (b) grid voltage, and (c) grid current

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Chopper brake circuit for FRT protection devices

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

The change in (IV) curve operating point under grid fault

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Simulation response of the PVPP with 85% voltage sag (3-ph)-15%voltage drop without dc-chopper FRT: (a) positive sequence of grid voltage in p.u., (b) PV array voltage, (c) PV array current, (d) PV system output power, and (e) dc-link voltage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Simulation response of the PVPP with 85% voltage sag (3-ph)-15% voltage drop with dc-chopper FRT: (a) grid voltage in p.u., (b) PV array voltage, (c) PV array current, (d) PV system output power, and (e) dc-link voltage



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In