Research Papers

Wind Effect Modeling and Analysis for Estimation of Photovoltaic Module Temperature

[+] Author and Article Information
Dhiraj Magare

Department of Energy Science and Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,
Mumbai 400076, India
e-mail: dhiraj.magare@iitb.ac.in

Oruganti Sastry

National Institute of Solar Energy,
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy,
New Delhi 122003, India
e-mail: sastry284@gmail.com

Rajesh Gupta

Department of Energy Science and Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,
Mumbai 400076, India
e-mail: rajeshgupta@iitb.ac.in

Birinchi Bora

National Institute of Solar Energy,
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy,
New Delhi 122003, India
e-mail: birinchibora09@gmail.com

Yogesh Singh

National Institute of Solar Energy,
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy,
New Delhi 122003, India
e-mail: yogeshkumarsingh7@gmail.com

Humaid Mohammed

Department of Energy Science and Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,
Mumbai 400076, India
e-mail: humaidmohd@iitb.ac.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received May 14, 2017; final manuscript received November 19, 2017; published online December 22, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Geoffrey T. Klise.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 140(1), 011008 (Dec 22, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: SOL-17-1184; doi: 10.1115/1.4038590 History: Received May 14, 2017; Revised November 19, 2017

The performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules in outdoor field conditions is adversely affected by the rise in module operating temperature. Wind flow around the module affects its temperature significantly, which ultimately influences the module output power. In this paper, a new approach has been presented, for module temperature estimation of different technology PV modules (amorphous Si, hetero-junction with intrinsic thin-layer (HIT) and multicrystalline Si) installed at the site of National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE), India. The model based on presented approach incorporates the effect of wind speed along with wind direction, while considering in-plane irradiance, ambient temperature, and the module efficiency parameters. For all the technology modules, results have been analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively under different wind situations. Qualitative analysis based on the trend of module temperature variation under different wind speed and wind direction along with irradiance and ambient temperature has been presented in detail from experimental data. Quantitative results obtained from presented model showed good agreement with the experimentally measured data for different technology modules. The model based on presented approach showed marked improvement in results with high consistency, in comparison with other models analyzed for different technology modules installed at the site. The improvement was very significant in case of multicrystalline Si technology modules, which is most commonly used and highly temperature sensitive technology. Presented work can be used for estimating the effect of wind on different technology PV modules and for prediction of module temperature, which affects the performance and reliability of PV modules.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Ndiaye, A. , Kébé, C. , Charki, A. , Ndiaye, P. , Sambou, V. , and Kobi, A. , 2014, “ Degradation Evaluation of Crystalline-Silicon Photovoltaic Modules After a Few Operation Years in a Tropical Environment,” Sol. Energy, 103, pp. 70–77. [CrossRef]
Sinha, A. , Sastry, O. S. , and Gupta, R. , 2016, “ Nondestructive Characterization of Encapsulant Discoloration Effects in Crystalline-Silicon PV Modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 155, pp. 234–242. [CrossRef]
Green, M. A. , 1982, Solar Cells: Operating Principles, Technology, and System Applications, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
King, D. L. , Boyson, W. E. , and Kratochvil, J. A. , 2002, “ Analysis of Factors Influencing the Annual Energy Production of Photovoltaic Systems,” 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 19–24, pp. 1356–1361.
Schwingshackl, C. , Petitta, M. , Wagner, J. E. , Belluardo, G. , Moser, D. , Castelli, M. , Zebisch, M. , and Tetzlaff, A. , 2013, “ Wind Effect on PV Module Temperature: Analysis of Different Techniques for an Accurate Estimation,” Energy Procedia, 40, pp. 77–86. [CrossRef]
Lasnier, F. , and Ang, T. G. , 1990, Photovoltaic Engineering Handbook, Adam Hilger, New York, p. 258.
Tripanagnostopoulos, Y. , Souliotis, M. , Battisti, R. , and Corrado, A. , 2005, “ Energy, Cost and LCA Results of PV and Hybrid PV/T Solar Systems,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl., 13(3), pp. 235–250. [CrossRef]
Markvart, T. , 2000, Solar Electricity, 2nd ed., Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Diaf, S. , Notton, G. , Belhamel, M. , Haddadi, M. , and Louche, A. , 2008, “ Design and Techno-Economical Optimization for Hybrid PV/Wind System Under Various Meteorological Conditions,” Appl. Energy, 85(10), pp. 968–987. [CrossRef]
Ross, R. G., Jr. , and Smokler, M. I. , 1986, “Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Final Report—Vol. VI: Engineering Sciences and Reliability,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, Report No. DOE/JPL-1012-125. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870011218
Nordmann, T. , and Clavadetscher, L. , 2003, “ Understanding Temperature Effects on PV System Performance,” Third World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Osaka, Japan, May 11–18, pp. 2243–2246. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1305032/
TamizhMani, G. , Ji, L. , Tang, Y. , and Petacci, L. , 2003, “ Photovoltaic Module Thermal-Wind Performance: Long-Term Monitoring and Model Development for Energy Rating,” NCPV and Solar Program Review Meeting, Denver, CO, Mar. 24–26, pp. 936–939. https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy03osti/35645.pdf
Chenni, R. , Markhlouf, M. , Kerbache, T. , and Bouzid, A. , 2007, “ A Detailed Modelling Method for Photovoltaic Cells,” Energy, 32(9), pp. 1724–1730. [CrossRef]
King, D. L. , Kratochvil, J. A. , and Boyson, W. E. , 2004, “Photovoltaic Array Performance Model,” Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, Report No. SAND2004-3535. http://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-control.cgi/2004/043535.pdf
Kurtz, S. , Whitfield, K. , TamizhMani, G. , Koehl, M. , Miller, D. , Joyce, J. , Wohlgemuth, J. , Bosco, N. , Kempe, M. , and Zgonena, T. , 2011, “ Evaluation of High-Temperature Exposure of Photovoltaic Modules,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl, 19(8), pp. 954–965. [CrossRef]
King, D. L. , 1997, “ Photovoltaic Module and Array Performance Characterization Methods for All System Operating Conditions,” NREL/SNL Photovoltaic Program Review Meeting, Lakewood, CO, Nov. 18–22, pp. 1–22. http://www.cleanenergy.com.ph/projects/CBRED/TA%20RE%20Manufacturers%20Sub-Contract/Compendium%20of%20References/Solar%20References/Collection%20of%20Solar%20Standards%20and%20Articles/C111%20PV%20Module%20Performance%20Characterizatn%20mthds.pdf
Duffie, J. A. , and Beckman, W. A. , 2006, Solar Energy Thermal Processes, 3rd ed., Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Bahaidarah, H. , Rehman, S. , Subhan, A. , Gandhidasan, P. , and Baig, H. , 2015, “ Performance Evaluation of a PV Module Under Climatic Conditions of Dhahran, Saudi Arabia,” Energy Explor. Exploit., 33(6), pp. 909–930. [CrossRef]
Skoplaki, E. , Boudouvis, A. G. , and Palyvos, J. A. , 2008, “ A Simple Correlation for the Operating Temperature of Photovoltaic Modules of Arbitrary Mounting,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cell, 92(11), pp. 1393–1402. [CrossRef]
Sparrow, E. M. , Ramsey, J. W. , and Mass, E. A. , 1979, “ Effect of Finite Width on Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow About an Inclined Rectangular Plate,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 101(2), pp. 199–204. [CrossRef]
Incropera, F. P. , 2007, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 6th ed., Wiley, New York.
Sharples, S. , and Charlesworth, P. S. , 1998, “ Full-Scale Measurements of Wind-Induced Convective Heat Transfer From a Roof-Mounted Flat Plate Solar Collector,” Sol. Energy, 62(2), pp. 69–77. [CrossRef]
Jakhrani, A. Q. , Othman, A. K. , Rigit, A. R. H. , and Samo, S. R. , 2011, “ Determination and Comparison of Different Photovoltaic Module Temperature Models for Kuching, Sarawak,” IEEE First Conference Clean Energy and Technology (CET), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, June 27–29, pp. 231–236.
Magare, D. , Sastry, O. S. , Gupta, R. , Kumar, A. , and Sinha, A. , 2012, “ Data Logging Strategy of Photovoltaic (PV) Module Test Beds,” 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (EU PVSEC), Frankfurt, Germany, Sept. 24–28, pp. 3259–3262. http://www.academia.edu/28850557/Data_Logging_Strategy_of_Photovoltaic_PV_Module_Test_beds
Huld, T. , Gottschalg, R. , Beyer, H. G. , and Topic, M. , 2010, “ Mapping the Performance of PV Modules, Effects of Module Type and Data Averaging,” Sol. Energy, 84(2), pp. 324–338. [CrossRef]
Bora, B. , Sastry, O. S. , Kumar, A. , Renu, M. , Bangar, M. , and Prasad, B. , 2016, “ Estimation of Most Frequent Conditions and Performance Evaluation of Three Photovoltaic Technology Modules,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 138(5), p. 054504. [CrossRef]
IEC, 2009, “Procedures for Temperature and Irradiance Corrections to Measured I-V Characteristics,” International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No. IEC 60891:2009. https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/3821
IEC, 2005, “General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories,” International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No. ISO/IEC 17025:2005. https://www.iso.org/standard/39883.html
IEC, 2011, “Photovoltaic (PV) Module Performance Testing and Energy Rating—Part 1: Irradiance and Temperature Performance Measurements and Power Rating,” International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No. IEC 61853-1:2011 https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/6035.
Magare, D. B. , Sastry, O. S. , Gupta, R. , Betts, T. R. , Gottschalg, R. , Kumar, A. , Bora, B. , and Singh, Y. K. , 2016, “ Effect of Seasonal Spectral Variations on Performance of Three Different Photovoltaic Technologies in India,” Int. J. Energy Environ. Eng., 7(1), pp. 93–103. [CrossRef]
Rosell, J. I. , and Ibanez, M. , 2006, “ Modelling Power Output in Photovoltaic Modules for Outdoor Operating Conditions,” Energy Convers. Manage., 47(15–16), pp. 2424–2430. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Wind speed occurrence at the site

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of weather station and PV module measurement system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The effect of variation in the in-plane irradiance and ambient temperature on module temperature (Tm) (grayscale palette) for different wind situations (a) 0–2 m/s, (b) 2–8 m/s parallel, and (c) 2–8 m/s perpendicular

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Percentage change in efficiency with respect to maximum observed efficiency under different wind situations for three PV technologies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Average RMSE of module temperature (Tm) corresponding to variation in model coefficients in the range of 50–150% with a step of 10%, under three wind situations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Histogram of recorded temperature data points with percentage difference in module temperature estimation for three PV technology modules under different wind situations



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In