Research Papers

Sizing of a Photovoltaic-Wind-Oil Shale Hybrid System: Case Analysis in Jordan

[+] Author and Article Information
Loiy AL-Ghussain

Sustainable Environment and Energy Systems,
Middle East Technical University Northern
Cyprus Campus,
Guzelyurt via Mersin 10,
Kalkanli 99738, Turkey
e-mail: loui.essam@hotmail.com

Onur Taylan

Mechanical Engineering Program,
Middle East Technical University Northern
Cyprus Campus,
Guzelyurt via Mersin 10,
Kalkanli 99738, Turkey
e-mail: ontaylan@metu.edu.tr

Murat Fahrioglu

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Program,
Middle East Technical University Northern
Cyprus Campus,
Guzelyurt via Mersin 10,
Kalkanli 99738, Turkey
e-mail: fmurat@metu.edu.tr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 2, 2017; final manuscript received August 29, 2017; published online October 17, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Geoffrey T. Klise.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 140(1), 011002 (Oct 17, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: SOL-17-1118; doi: 10.1115/1.4038048 History: Received April 02, 2017; Revised August 29, 2017

The integration between renewable energy systems (RESs) and oil shale system ensures reliable power generation source with a competitive energy generation cost when compared to costs of conventional systems. In addition, this integration will prevent considerable amount of CO2 emissions. This study aims to determine the size of a grid-tied hybrid system in Al-Tafilah, Jordan that maximizes the yearly overall fraction of demand met with levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) equal to or lower than the local cost of electricity generation. In addition, the effect of the integration of lithium-ion batteries as short-term energy storage systems (ESSs) will be investigated in addition to the effect of carbon social cost on the economics of the system. The maximum FH by the hybrid system in Al-Tafilah is 97.2% with ESS and 96.9% without ESS where 70.4% of the demand is met by the 12 MW oil shale system; however, to achieve these fractions, enormous installed capacity of photovoltaic (PV) and wind is required where 99% of the energy production is excess and LCOE is larger than COEcon. The maximum FH with LCOE equals to COEcon can be achieved by 12 MW oil shale, 3.5 MW PV, and 6 MW wind turbines without ESS. Such size will have FH of 87.23%, capacity factor of 46.1%, RES fraction of 16.9%, net present value (NPV) of 34.8 million USD, and a payback period of 4.8 years.

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the PV/wind-oil shale system

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Fig. 2

The average daily irradiation on horizontal surface in Al-Tafilah, Jordan

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Fig. 3

The average hourly wind speed at 10 m in Al-Tafilah, Jordan

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Fig. 4

The RES energy flow chart in the presence of ESS

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Fig. 5

Hourly average electricity demand for Al-Tafilah city in Jordan in 2010 [21]

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Fig. 6

The installed PV capacity as a function of the number of wind turbines with 12 MW oil shale capacity that maximizes fraction of demand met with and without ESS in Al-Tafilah, Jordan

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Fig. 9

The average hourly energy generation from the 12 MW oil shale, 3.5 MW PV and 6 MW wind systems in addition to the average hourly demand of Al-Tafilah city

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Fig. 10

The monthly electricity production from the components of PV/wind-oil shale hybrid system with 12 MW oil shale, 3.5 MW PV and 6 MW wind turbines with LCOE0 equals to COEcon and the monthly demand met by the electricity grid in addition to the monthly demand for Al-Tafilah city in Jordan

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Fig. 7

The LCOE0 of the PV/wind-oil shale hybrid system as a function of wind and PV capacities with 12 MW oil shale system and without any ESS, in addition to the COEcon in Al-Tafilah, Jordan

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Fig. 8

The LCOE0 of the PV/wind-oil shale hybrid system as a function of wind and PV capacities with 12 MW oil shale system and with lithium-Ion battery bank of different capacities based on the hourly deficit, in addition to the COEcon in Al-Tafilah, Jordan



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