Different types of physiological amplitude (40–250 mV/mm)  electric fields (EFs) have been shown to influence a wide variety of biological systems  and have been used as a therapeutic tool for tissue repair . There has been emerging evidence that certain types of EFs can promote angiogenesis and tissue vascularization . Studies have shown that direct current EF and pulsed EF induced angiogenic responses including cell migration, VEGF release and cytoskeletal reorganization in human endothelial cells (HUVECs) [4, 5]. Similarly different types of EF induced the activation of intracellular MAPK pathways in several non-endothelial cell types. [6, 7]. However, the effect of EF with different modalities on endothelial angiogenic responses and the intracellular pathways remain unknown.
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Electric Field Stimulates Angiogenesis via Activation of MAPK/ERK Signaling in Microvascular Endothelial Cells
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Sheikh, AQ, Taghian, T, Kogan, A, & Narmoneva, DA. "Electric Field Stimulates Angiogenesis via Activation of MAPK/ERK Signaling in Microvascular Endothelial Cells." Proceedings of the ASME 2012 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2012 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. Fajardo, Puerto Rico, USA. June 20–23, 2012. pp. 695-696. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2012-80851
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