One uncertainty in use of gold nanorods for laser photothermal therapy is the non-uniform spreading of gold nanorods in tissue after either systemic delivery or intratumoral injections. High concentration of gold nanorods in certain areas influences the resulted optical absorption of the laser and thermal damage to tumors. This also provides challenges in designing optimal heating protocols via modeling thermal transport in laser photothermal therapy. For successful cancer treatment, the tissue should be heated with minimum thermal dosage to induce tumor cell damage, while minimizing overheating in the surrounding healthy tissues. Thus, one of the main challenges for reliable cancer therapy is to precisely control loading and distribution of gold nanorods in the tumour tissue. The critical mass transport processes are the distribution of gold nanorods after injection to the tumor and the redistribution of gold nanorods during laser treatment. Since tumors are opaque, nanostructure distribution in tissue is often studied either by theoretical modeling approaches1, or via dye enhanced imaging on superficial layers of tumors.2 It is important to find a technique which can directly visualize and analyze three-dimensional nanostructure distribution of tumors. Three-dimensional reconstructions of tumors with the ability to trace gold nanorod spreading have the potential for precise theoretical simulation of temperature fields. Previous studies showed that computer tomography (CT) scan is a promising technique to be utilized to characterize the distribution of intratumorally injected magnetic nanoparticles in tumors 3.

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