Actin dynamics, which is at the basis of many fundamental cellular processes as cell migration [1], is governed by the self-assembly and disassembly of actin monomers (G-actin) that, in turn, are determined by the kinetics of ATP hydrolysis and by the local concentrations of Mg2+ and Ca2+ [2]. During cell migration, interactions of the actin filaments (F-actin) with different nucleotide-cation complexes induce local topological rearrangements, because the filament building G-actins undergo conformational shifts between multiple equilibrium states separated by low-energy barriers. For example, the structural rearrangements of the DNase-I binding loop (residues 38–52) in subdomain 2 are driven by ATP hydrolysis and the changes in the conformation of subdomain 4 are induced by the presence of a tightly-bound Mg2+ or Ca2+ ion (Figure 1a). These conformational shifts alter the cross-linking between monomers, varying the contact surfaces among adjacent inter- and intrasubdomains of G-actin, and reflect on the overall properties of F-actin.

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