Endothelial cells line the walls of all blood vessels, where they maintain homeostasis through control of vascular tone, permeability, inflammation, and the growth and regression of blood vessels. Endothelial cells are mechanosensitive to fluid shear stress, elongating and aligning in the flow direction [1–2]. This shape change is driven by rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions [2]. Hyperglycemia, a hallmark of diabetes, affects endothelial cell function. High glucose has been shown to increase protein kinase C, formation of glucose-derived advanced glycation end-products, and glucose flux through the aldose reductase pathway within endothelial cells [3]. These changes are thought to be related to increased reactive oxygen species production [4]. While endothelial cell mechanics have been widely studied in healthy conditions, many disease states have yet to be explored. Biochemical alterations related to high glucose may alter endothelial cell mechanics.

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