The normal spine is a flexible column designed to maintain stability, position and can carry a considerable load. Degeneration weakens the spine by adversely affecting spinal stability, which is observed when a motion segment exhibits abnormally large displacements under applications of physiological load[1]. Furthermore, degeneration noticeably changes the load-bearing role of the intervertebral disc (IVD) during compression and extension by shifting significantly to the facet joint (FJ)[2].

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