For some applications of musculoskeletal modeling it may be important to simulate the passive responses of joint range-of-motion limits. For example, Lemay and Crago  enforced dynamic limits of flexion and extension in an elbow model. In cases such as the elbow where the joint can be modeled as a simple hinge, the range of motion can be easily specified in terms of a minimum and maximum joint angle, and the motion limits can be enforced using simple visco-elastic restraining torques against any limit violations. For joints such as the shoulder girdle, however, which involve multiple articulating bones and multiple degrees of freedom, dynamic enforcement of joint range-of-motion limits requires a more complex approach.
Dynamic Modeling of Shoulder Girdle Range of Motion Limits
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Garner, BA. "Dynamic Modeling of Shoulder Girdle Range of Motion Limits." Proceedings of the ASME 2007 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2007 Summer Bioengineering Conference. Keystone, Colorado, USA. June 20–24, 2007. pp. 441-442. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2007-176758
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