It is well known that the performance of open field acoustic sensors is affected by complex sound propagation phenomena occurring in outdoor settings, such as ground effects, noise from atmospheric turbulence, refraction by wind and temperature gradients, diffraction over buildings and hills, and acoustic sensors on moving platforms. In addition, the behavior of sound propagation changes at the interface of different media. We have developed a time-domain simulation that enables the numerical simulation of all the mentioned factors. This capability provides information on the effect of sound waves once they reach a sensor or a target. We are implementing this algorithm for 3D, long-distance propagations. The challenge is three-fold: a) efficient parallelization; b) moving frame capability in 3D for long-distance propagation simulation; c) accurately implementing the perfectly match layer (PML) methods to represent the free boundaries.

In this paper, we have selected cylinders as the objects for sound wave to propagate through. Both 2D and 3D simulations were conducted. The results are compared with available measurement data in the literature. The phenomena are discussed in the context of 2D and 3D propagation behaviors.

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