The fluid dynamic environment within an artery is an important contributor to haemostasis. Fluid mechanics can alter the biochemical environment through convection and diffusion of reactive substances. It can bring the platelets close to the wall through convection and enhanced diffusion, cause platelet activation through hemodynamic shear stresses, and alter the substrate for platelet adhesion through shear effects on endothelial cells. Shear produces long-term effects on endothelial cells, such as morphological changes in the cells and adaptation of the size of the artery. It can also affect endothelial cells in the short term by increasing calcium release or release of nitric oxide.

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