A new model which accounts for both backlash and friction effects is proposed for the dynamics of a spur gear system. The model estimates average friction torque and uses it to replace the instantaneous friction torque to simplify the dynamical equations of motion. Two simulations, free oscillation and constant load operation, are performed to illustrate the effects of backlash and friction on gear dynamics. The results are compared with that of a previously established model which does not account for the friction. Finally, the effect of adding a damper on the driving shaft is also studied. This model is judged to be more realistic for real time control of electronmechanical systems to reduce gear noise and to achieve high precision.

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