Tightening global emissions regulations are motivating interest in the development and implementation of Selective Catalytic Reduction + Filtration (SCRF) systems, which are designed to reduce the concentration of tailpipe particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions. These systems allow designers to combine the NOx reduction capability of an SCR with the filtration capability of a particulate filter on a single unit. Practical implementation of these systems requires reliable measurement and diagnosis of their state — both with respect to trapped particulate matter as well as adsorbed ammonia. Currently, these systems rely on a variety of gas sensors, mounted upstream or downstream of the system, that only provide an indirect inference of the operation state.
In this study, a single radio frequency (RF) sensor was used to perform simultaneous measurements of soot loading and ammonia inventory on an SCRF. Several SCRF core samples were tested at varying soot and ash loads in a catalyst reactor bench. Soot levels were measured by monitoring changes in the bulk dielectric properties within the catalyst using the sensor, while ammonia levels were determined by feeding selected regions of the RF spectrum into a pretrained generalized regression neural network model. Results show the RF sensor is able to directly measure the instantaneous ammonia inventory, while simultaneously providing soot loading measurements within 0.5 g/L. These results confirm that simultaneous measurements of both the PM and ammonia loading state of an SCRF are possible using a single RF sensor via analysis of specific features in the full RF spectrum. The results indicate significant potential to remove the control barriers typically associated with the implementation of advanced SCRF systems.