Motivated by increasingly strict NOx limits, engine manufactures have adopted selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology to reduce engine-out NOx below mandated levels. In the SCR process, nitrogen oxides (NOx) react with ammonia (NH3) to form nitrogen and water vapor. The reaction is influenced by several variables, including stored ammonia on the catalyst, exhaust gas composition, and catalyst temperature. Currently, measurements from NOx and/or NH3 sensors upstream and downstream of the SCR are used with predictive models to estimate ammonia storage levels on the catalyst and control urea dosing.
This study investigated a radio frequency (RF) -based method to directly monitor the ammonia storage state of the SCR catalyst. This approach utilizes the SCR catalyst as a cavity resonator, in which an RF antenna excites electromagnetic waves within the cavity to monitor changes in the catalyst state. A mmonia storage causes changes in the dielectric properties of the catalyst, which directly impacts the RF signal. Changes in the RF signal relative to stored a mmonia (NH3) were evaluated over a wide frequency range as well as temperature and exhaust conditions. The RF response to NH3 storage, desorption, and oxidation on the SCR was observed to be well-correlated with changes in the catalyst state. Calibrated RF measurements demonstrate the ability to monitor the adsorption state of the SCR to within 10 % of the sensor full scale. The results indicate direct measurement of SCR ammonia storage levels, and resulting catalyst feedback control, via RF sensing to have significant potential for optimizing the SCR system to improve NOx conversion and decrease urea consumption.