This paper discusses chemical kinetic modeling used to analyze the formation of pollutant emissions in large-bore, lean-burn gas reciprocating engines. Pollutants considered are NOx, CO, HCHO, and UHC. A quasi-dimensional model, built as a chemical reactor network (CRN), is described. In this model, the flame front is treated as a perfectly stirred reactor (PSR) followed by a plug flow reactor (PFR), and reaction in the burnt gas is modeled assuming a batch reactor of constant-pressure and fixed-mass for each crank angle increment. The model treats full chemical kinetics. Engine heat loss is treated by incorporating the Woschni model into the CRN. The mass burn rate is selected so that the modeled cylinder pressure matches the experiment pressure trace. Originally, the model was developed for large, low speed, two-stoke, lean-burn engines. However, recently, the model has been formatted for the four-stroke, open-chamber, lean-burn engine. The focus of this paper is the application of the model to a four-stroke engine. This is a single-cylinder non-production variant of a heavy duty lean-burn engine of about 5 liters cylinder displacement Engine speed is 1500 RPM. Key findings of this work are the following. 1) Modeled NOx and CO are found to agree closely with emission measurements for this engine over a range of relative air-fuel ratios tested. 2) This modeling shows the importance of including N2O chemistry in the NOx calculation. For λ = 1.7, the model indicates that about 30% of the NOx emitted is formed by the N2O mechanism, with the balance from the Zeldovich mechanism. 3) The modeling shows that the CO and HCHO emissions arise from partial oxidation late in the expansion stroke as unburned charge remaining mixes into the burnt gas. 4) Model generated plots of HCHO versus CH4 emission for the four-stroke engine are in agreement with field data for large-bore, lean-burn, gas reciprocating engines. Also, recent engine tests show the correlation of UHC and CO emissions to crevice volume. These tests suggest that HCHO emissions also are affected by crevice flows through partial oxidation of UHC late in the expansion stroke.
- Internal Combustion Engine Division
Modeling the Formation of Pollutant Emissions in Large-Bore, Lean-Burn Gas Engines
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Pundle, A, Nicol, DG, Malte, PC, & Hiltner, JD. "Modeling the Formation of Pollutant Emissions in Large-Bore, Lean-Burn Gas Engines." Proceedings of the ASME 2017 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference. Volume 1: Large Bore Engines; Fuels; Advanced Combustion. Seattle, Washington, USA. October 15–18, 2017. V001T01A005. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/ICEF2017-3577
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