The effects of ethanol on spray development and wall impingement of a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine was investigated using high-speed imaging of the fuel spray in an optically-accessible engine. Neat anhydrous ethanol (E100), reference grade gasoline (E0) and a 50% blend (by volume) of gasoline and ethanol (E50) were used in the study. The experiments were conducted using continuous firing conditions for an intake manifold absolute pressure of 57 kPA, and engine speed of 1500 RPM. Retarded fuel injection timing was used (with start of injection at 250 °bTDC) to isolate the effects of cylinder wall impingement, and lean fuel-to-air ratios (ϕ=0.8–0.9) were used to minimize sooting and coating of the transparent cylinder liner. The effects of three engine coolant temperatures (25, 60 and 90 °C) and two fuel rail pressures (100 and 150 bar) on the features of the spray and the spray interaction with the wall were studied for the different fuels. Quantitative metrics were defined to analyze the spatial features of the spray related to wall impingement. Gasoline (E0) sprays exhibited higher sensitivity to coolant temperature compared to ethanol (E100) in terms of the shape of the spray and wall impingement. Higher fuel injection pressure increased the spray tip penetration rate and fuel impingement with the wall for E0 and E100, despite creating wider plume angles of the fuel sprays.

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