Industrial gas turbines like the MGT6000 are often operated as power supply or as mechanical drives for pumps and compressors at remote locations on islands and in deserts. Moreover, small gas turbines are used in CHP applications with a high need for availability. In these applications, liquid fuels like ‘Diesel Fuel No. 2’ can be used either as main fuel or as backup fuel if natural gas is not reliably available. The MAN Gas Turbines (MGT) operate with the Advanced Can Combustion (ACC) system, which is already capable of ultra-low NOx emissions for a variety of gaseous fuels. This system has been further developed to provide dry dual fuel capability to the MGT family. In the present paper, we describe the design and detailed experimental validation process of the liquid fuel injection, and its integration into the gas turbine package.
A central lance with an integrated two-stage nozzle is employed as a liquid pilot stage, enabling ignition and start-up of the engine on liquid fuel only, without the need for any additional atomizing air. The pilot stage is continuously operated to support further the flame stabilization across the load range, whereas the bulk of the liquid fuel is injected through the premixed combustor stage. The premixed stage comprises a set of four decentralized nozzles placed at the exit of the main air swirler. These premixed nozzles are based on fluidic oscillator atomizers, wherein a rapid and effective atomization of the liquid fuel is achieved through self-induced oscillations of the liquid fuel stream.
We present results of numerical and experimental investigations performed in the course of the development process illustrating the spray, hydrodynamic, and thermal performance of the pilot injectors. Extensive testing of the burner at atmospheric and full load high-pressure conditions has been performed, before verification of the whole combustion system within full engine tests. The burner shows excellent emission performance (NOx, CO, UHC, soot) without additional water injection, while maintaining the overall natural gas performance. Soot and particle emissions, quantified via several methods, are well below legal restrictions. Furthermore, when not in liquid fuel operation, a continuous purge of the injectors based on compressor outlet (p2) air has been laid out. Generic atmospheric coking tests were conducted before verifying the purge system in full engine tests. Thereby we completely avoid the need for an additional high-pressure auxiliary compressor or demineralized water. We show the design of the fuel supply and distribution system. We designed it to allow for rapid fuel switchovers from gaseous fuel to liquid fuel, and for sharp load jumps. Finally, we discuss the integration of the dual fuel system into the standard gas turbine package of the MGT6000 in detail.