The paper presents a one-dimensional approach to assess the reduction potential of NOx emissions for lean premixed gas turbine combustion systems. NOx emissions from these systems are known to be mainly caused by high temperatures; not only from an averaged perspective but especially related to poor mixing quality of fuel and air.
The method separates the NOx chemistry in the flame front zone and the post flame zone (slow reaction). A one-dimensional treatment enables the use of detailed chemistry. A look up table parameterized by reaction progress and equivalence ratio is used to improve the computational efficiency.
The influence of mixing quality is taken into account by a probability density function of the fuel element based equivalence ratio, which itself translates into a temperature distribution. Hence, the NOx source terms are a function of reaction progress and equivalence ratio. The reaction progress is considered by means of the two-zone approach. Based on unsteady CFD data, the evolution of the probability density function with residence time has been analyzed.
Two types of definitions of an unmixedness quantity are considered. One definition accounts for spatial as well as temporal fluctuations and the other is based on the mean spatial distribution. They are determined at the location of the flame front.
The paper presents a comparison of the modeled results with experimental data. A validation and application have shown very good quantitative and qualitative agreement with the measurements. The comparison of the unmixedness definitions has proven the necessity of unsteady simulations. A general emissions - unmixedness correlation can be derived for a given combustion system.