Acoustic damping properties of perforated liners are highly dependent on a number of variables which can be categorized as “flow variables” such as the extent and Mach number of grazing flow as well as bias flow and “geometric variable” such as the shape of the hole which can be rectangular, cylindrical, conical with diverging or converging nozzle, thickness to radius ratio, radius to hole spacing ratio and hole orientation which can be normal to or inclined with respect to the perforated plate. Many of these variables were not incorporated in previous studies.
Theoretical and empirical approaches have provided the foundation for understanding the damping properties of liners but they are based on certain simplifying assumptions making them inadequate in addressing the more realistic conditions encountered in industrial applications. These limitations have highlighted the importance of numerical methods for studying damping behavior of liners. Acoustic attributes of perforated plates (mainly in terms of impedance which is a frequency-dependent complex quantity) as a function of non-dimensional variables like Reynolds, Strouhal, Mach, and Helmholtz numbers have been studied by various researchers, including the authors, using a variety of numerical tools starting from the simple 1D network scheme based on linear acoustics and the wall compliance concept introduced by Howe all the way to the computationally intensive Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) and Scaled Adaptive Simulation (SAS) reconstructing the full unsteady turbulent structures. Although the impacts of some geometry variations such as hole inclination angle and diameter, in conjunction with various fluid dynamic parameters, have been investigated using 1D network tools, the focus of LES has been mainly on analysis of a single circular hole with periodic boundary conditions as the representation of multi-perforation (assuming the perforations are spaced far enough from each other so that there is no interaction between neighboring holes). There is certainly a need for thorough investigation of the acoustics impact of these geometric parameters as well as shape of the holes using LES.
In an on-going research we are extending the numerical modeling work on characterizing the acoustic damping attributes of a perforation, beyond the current state of the art, by including the geometric variables including hole size, shape, orientation, and radius to thickness ratio, amongst others, in the study. In this paper, following a short review of the research conducted in the recent past for comprehension of the acoustic-vortex interaction mechanism in perforated liners resulting in acoustic absorption, we present the findings on the impact of thickness/radius ratio on the acoustic damping attribute of a perforation. The verification of the CFD results are done by comparing the data with analytical solutions.