The high thermal conduction resistances of lithium-ion batteries severely limits the effectiveness of conventional external thermal management systems. To remove heat from the insulated interior portions of the cell, a large temperature difference is required across the cell, and the center of the electrode stack can exceed the thermal runaway onset temperature even under normal cycling conditions. One potential solution is to remove heat locally inside the cell by evaporating a volatile component of the electrolyte. In this system, a high vapor pressure co-solvent evaporates at a low temperature prior to triggering thermal runaway. The vapor generated is transported to the skin of the cell, where it is condensed and transported back to the internal portion of the cell via surface tension forces. For this system to function, a co-solvent that has a boiling point below the thermal runaway onset temperature must also allow the cell to function under normal operating conditions. Low boiling point hydrofluoroethers (HFE) were first used by Arai to reduce LIB electrolyte flash points, and have been proven to be compatible with LIB chemistry. In the present study, HFE-7000 and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) 1:1 by volume are used to solvate 1.0 M LiTFSI to produce a candidate electrolyte for the proposed cooling system. Copper antimonide (Cu2Sb) and lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) are used in a full cell architecture with the candidate electrolyte in a custom electrolyte boiling facility. The facility enables direct viewing of the vapor generation within the full cell and characterizes the galvanostatic electrochemical performance. Test results show that the LFP/Cu2Sb cell is capable of operation even when a portion of the more volatile HFE-7000 is continuously evaporated.
- Advanced Energy Systems Division
Multi-Functional Electrolyte for Thermal Management of Lithium-Ion Batteries
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Westhoff, K, & Bandhauer, TM. "Multi-Functional Electrolyte for Thermal Management of Lithium-Ion Batteries." Proceedings of the ASME 2016 14th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology collocated with the ASME 2016 Power Conference and the ASME 2016 10th International Conference on Energy Sustainability. ASME 2016 14th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology. Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. June 26–30, 2016. V001T01A002. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/FUELCELL2016-59460
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