Previous studies of a piezoelectric proton exchange membrane fuel cell with nozzle and diffuser (PZT-PEMFC-ND) have shown that a PZT device could solve flooding problems and improve cell performance. The results also indicated that the rectification efficiency (γ) of the diffuser elements, the PZT vibrating frequency (f), and the displaced volume per stroke (ΔV) affected the flow rate of the PZT device. The rectification efficiency of the diffuser elements, which is an indicator of the preferential direction, depends on the geometrical parameters (AR and θ) and the Reynolds number. In this study, an innovative design for a PZT-PEMFC-ND bi-cell with pseudo bipolar electrodes was developed to achieve a higher power in the stack design to solve water flooding problems and improve cell performance. This new design, with a reaction area of 8 cm2, contains two cells with two outside anodes and two inside cathodes that share a common PZT vibrating device for pumping air flow. The influence of the varying aspect ratio (AR) of the diffuser elements on the unit cell flow rate were investigated using a three-dimensional transitional model. The results show that a proper AR value of 11.25 for the diffuser with a smaller θ of 5° could ensure a smoother intake of the air and thus better cell performance. A lower AR value of 5.63 resulted in smaller actuation pressure inside the chamber, and thus the produced water could not be pumped out. However, a larger AR of 16.88 induced a blocking phenomenon inside the diffuser element, and thus less air was sucked into the cathode chamber. The performance of the PZT-PEMFC-ND bi-cell could be 1.6 times greater than that of the single cell. This performance may be influenced by the phase difference of the operating modes.

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