On the total combination of their power, electric, economic, operating and ecological characteristics fuel cells (FC) on the base of oxygen (air) - aluminum (AA) electrochemical system are one of the most effective fuel cells. On their power/mass performances they are worse only the oxygen-hydrogen FC and some types of FC with the lithium anode. It is easy to recharge AA FC by means of the mechanical replacement of the working components after their expenditure. AA FC storage period is not less then ten years without degradation of their characteristics. Thus it is a prospective current source with a repeated operation. It is distinguished by the high power performances, long storage period and ecological cleanness as during their exploitation, as during their producing and utilization of the waste FC and the products of the reactions. The authors developed fundamental researches of the processes which take place at the systems and assemblies of power plants (PP) with AA FC. These researches allowed to eliminate the basic defects of AA FC which blocked their practical application. Autonomous current sources on the AA FC base can be effectively applied for the different users power supply in the main supply absence conditions. The basic application fields: telecommunication systems, transport, rescue-emergency parties and so forth. We created the aluminum-air fuel cells power plants (PP) with the alkaline and salt electrolytes with the different additions and special developed anode alloys. They have the wide ranged capacities from the unites of W up to hundreds of kW.

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