In this contribution, an optimization study based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in combination with Stratford’s analytical separation criterion was developed for the design of piece-wise conical contraction zones. The occurrence of flow separation can be formally described by a newly introduced dimensionless separation number. In the optimization process, the risk of flow separation is reduced by minimizing this separation number. It was found that the optimized piece-wise conical nozzle shape did not correspond to a simple geometric approximation of the ideal polynomial shape. In fact, it was beneficial to reduce the deflection in the outlet region for a piece-wise conical nozzle stronger than for a conventional one. In order to validate the new design method, large-scale tests for different nozzle designs were conducted. The measured velocity profiles and wall pressure distributions agreed well with the CFD predictions. The new method was applied for designing the contraction zone of a new closed-loop organic vapor wind tunnel (CLOWT) working at elevated pressure levels.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.