With population of 3.9 million and area of 17,818 km2, the State of Kuwait holds about 8% and 1% of the world proven oil and gas reserves, respectively. Its total primary energy (oil and gas) production is about 3.5 million barrel oil equivalent per day (Mboe/d). Yet, Kuwait is facing energy challenges as a result of high and rapid growth of domestic energy consumption that has reached 18% of its total primary energy production. Therefore, adopting policies to transform the present energy system to a sustainable system has become indispensable national requirement. In this paper, a transition scenario for Kuwait’s energy system is proposed. The transition scenario addresses both the supply and demand sides through diversifying primary energy mix and energy demand management measures. The energy mix scenario is the optimum outcome of MARKAL-TIMES model of the energy system of Kuwait. Modeling results show that meeting 10% of the country’s energy demand through the exploitation of solar and wind energies by 2030 is the technical and economical optimal scenario. While the demand management measures are based on pilot energy conservation and efficiency study that shows energy saving could reach 24% and leading to savings of 4% reduction in power installation capacity. Utilization of efficient water desalination systems can reduce national energy consumption by 5%. The paper concludes with policy implications that are essential to launch the transformation toward sustainability.

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