A 12′ by 24′ passive solar test building has been constructed on the campus of the University of Louisville. The building envelope is comprised of structural insulated panels (SIPs), 12″ thick, (R-value of 45 ft2F/Btu) for the floor and walls and 16″ (R-63) for the roof. The building is divided into two symmetrical rooms with a 12″ SIPs wall separating the rooms. All joints between panels are caulked to reduce infiltration. Each room contains one window (R-9) on the north side wall, and two windows (also R-9) facing south for ventilation and daylighting, but which will also provide some direct gain heating. The south wall of each room features an opening that will accommodate a passive solar heating system so that performance of two systems can be compared side-by-side. The overhang above the south openings is purposely left short to accommodate an awning to provide adjustable shading. The calculated loss coefficient (UA) for each room of the building is 6.07 W/K. Each room is also equipped with a data acquisition system consisting on an SCXI 1600 16 bit digitizer and an SCXI 1102B isolation amplifier with an SCXI 1303 thermocouple module. Pyranometers are placed on the south wall and the clerestory wall to measure insolation on the solar apertures.
For initial tests, one room is equipped with an original heat pipe system previously tested in another building, while the other is equipped with a modified heat pipe system. Changes to the modified system include copper absorbers versus aluminum, an adiabatic section constructed of considerably less thermally-conductive DPM rubber than the copper used for the original design, and one of the five condenser sections of the heat pipes is exposed directly to the room air to provide early-morning heating. Experimental results will be compared to simulations with as-built building characteristics and actual weather data. Previous simulations with a load to collector ratio of 10 W/m2K, a defined room comfort temperature range between 65°F to 75°F, and TMY3 weather data for Louisville, KY, showed that the modified heat pipe wall design improves annual solar fraction by 16% relative to the original design.