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Research Papers

Thermal Modeling, Experimental Validation, and Comparative Analysis of Modified Solar Stills

[+] Author and Article Information
Piyush Pal

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad,
Prayagraj 211004, Uttar Pradesh, India
e-mails: piyushpal19@gmail.com; rme1454@mnnit.ac.in

Rahul Dev

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad,
Prayagraj 211004, Uttar Pradesh, India
e-mail: rahuldsurya@mnnit.ac.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Solar Energy Engineering: Including Wind Energy and Building Energy Conservation. Manuscript received February 19, 2019; final manuscript received May 28, 2019; published online June 20, 2019. Assoc. Editor: M. Keith Sharp.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 141(6), 061013 (Jun 20, 2019) (16 pages) Paper No: SOL-19-1064; doi: 10.1115/1.4043955 History: Received February 19, 2019; Accepted May 31, 2019

In the present work, an effort is carried out to enhance the distillate yield of a single-slope basin-type solar still by increasing the heat input through its transparent walls and providing hanging wicks to increase the evaporation–condensation rates. A modified basin-type single-slope multi-wick solar still (MBSSMWSS) was proposed and fabricated to increase the productivity and improve the low efficiency of the recently designed modified basin-type single-slope solar still (MBSSSS). Experiments were conducted on both the solar stills to assess their performance, productivity, and efficiency (thermal and exergy) for the same basin area and water depth for the climatic condition of Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh (U.P.), India. Results showed that the productivity, overall energy (thermal) efficiency, and maximum values of measured instantaneous exergy efficiency of the MBSSSS and MBSSMWSS systems were found to be 3.2 l/m2 day and 4.22 l/m2 day, 18.16% and 26.89%, and 4.28% and 5.31%, respectively. Furthermore, thermal modeling was also done using the energy balance equations, and then, a theoretical analysis was carried out to validate with the respective experimental observations. A good agreement was found between experimental and theoretical results. Finally, based on the results of the evaluation parameters and comparative analysis, the modified solar still with wick was found to be a better system compared with that of the system without wick and might be a good option as a solar desalination system.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of modified basin type single-slope solar still, (b) cross-sectional side view of MBSSSS, and (c) experimental setup of MBSSSS with transparent walls and troughs

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Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram of modified basin-type single-slope multi-wick solar still, (b) cross-sectional side view of MBSSMWSS, and (c) experimental setup of MBSSMWSS showing condensation on west wall

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Fig. 3

MBSSMWSS using black cotton wick and showing transparent walls with troughs

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Fig. 4

Hourly variation of global solar radiation and ambient temperature during experimentation for typical days in the month of Apr. 2017

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Fig. 5

Hourly variation of wick (strap layer), basin, vapor, inner, and outer glass surface temperatures during experimentation in MBSSMWSS for a typical day in the month of Apr. 2017

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Fig. 6

Hourly variation of basin, vapor, inner, and outer glass surface temperatures during experimentation in MBSSSS for a typical day in the month of Apr. 2017

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Fig. 7

Hourly variation of experimental and theoretical water temperatures in MBSSMWSS for a typical day in the month of Apr. 2017

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Fig. 8

Hourly variation of experimental and theoretical water temperatures in MBSSSS for a typical day in the month of Apr. 2017

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Fig. 9

Hourly variation of experimental and theoretical temperature of strap layer of water–wick in MBSSMWSS for a typical day in the month of Apr. 2017

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Fig. 10

Hourly variation of experimental and theoretical yield in MBSSMWSS for a typical day in the month of Apr. 2017

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Fig. 11

Hourly experimental and theoretical cumulative yield in MBSSMWSS for a typical day in the month of Apr. 2017

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Fig. 12

Hourly variation of experimental and theoretical yield in MBSSSS for a typical day in the month of Apr. 2017

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Fig. 13

Hourly experimental and theoretical cumulative yield in MBSSSS for a typical day in the month of Apr. 2017

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Fig. 14

Hourly variation of energy and exergy efficiency of MBSSMWSS for a typical day in the month of Apr. 2017

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Fig. 15

Hourly variation of energy and exergy efficiency of MBSSSS for a typical day in the month of Apr. 2017

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