Research Papers

A Broad Comparison of Solar Photovoltaic and Thermal Technologies for Industrial Heating Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Osama M. Bany Mousa

School of Mechanical and
Manufacturing Engineering,
The University of New South Wales (UNSW),
Kensington 2052, New South Wales, Australia;
Applied Science Private University,
Amman 11931, Jordan
e-mail: O.banymousa@unsw.edu.au

Robert A. Taylor

School of Mechanical and
Manufacturing Engineering,
The University of New South Wales (UNSW),
Kensington 2052, New South Wales, Australia
e-mail: Robert.Taylor@unsw.edu.au

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received December 15, 2017; final manuscript received July 6, 2018; published online August 13, 2018. Assoc. Editor: M. Keith Sharp.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 141(1), 011002 (Aug 14, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: SOL-17-1493; doi: 10.1115/1.4040840 History: Received December 15, 2017; Revised July 06, 2018

Solar harvesting designs aim to optimize energy output per unit area. When it comes to choosing between rooftop technologies for generating heat and/or electricity from the sun, though, the literature has favored qualitative arguments over quantitative comparisons. In this paper, an agnostic perspective will be used to evaluate several solar collector designs—thermal, photovoltaic (PV), and hybrid (PV/T) systems—which can result in medium temperature heat for industry rooftops. Using annual trnsys simulations in several characteristic global locations, it was found that a maximum solar contribution (for all selected locations) of 79.1% can be achieved for a sterilization process with a solar thermal (ST) system as compared to 40.6% for a PV system. A 43.2%solar contribution can be obtained with a thermally coupled PV/T, while an uncoupled PV/T beam splitting collector can achieve 84.2%. Lastly, PV and ST were compared in a side-by-side configuration, indicating that this scenario is also feasible since it provides a solar contribution of 75.2%. It was found that the location's direct normal incident (DNI) and global horizontal irradiation (GHI) are the dominant factors in determining the best technology for industrial heating applications. Overall, this paper is significant in that it introduces a comparative simulation strategy to analyze a wide variety of solar technologies for global industrial heat applications.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


The Climate Group, 2016, “ RE100 Annual Report 2016: Growing Market Demand for Renewable Power,” The Climate Group, London, accessed July 8, 2017, https://www.theclimategroup.org/sites/default/files/2016_annual_report.pdf
Kalogirou, S. , 2002, “ The Potential of Solar Industrial Process Heat Applications,” Appl. Energy, 76(4), pp. 337–361. [CrossRef]
Hollick, 1998, “ Solar Cogeneration Panels,” Renewable Energy, 15(1–4), pp. 195–200.
Bakker, Z. , Elswijk, S. , and Jong , 2005, “ Performance and Costs of a Roof-Sized PV/Thermal Array Combined With a Ground Coupled Heat Pump,” Sol. Energy, 78(2), pp. 331–339. [CrossRef]
Vannoni, B. , and Drigo , 2008, “ Potential for Solar Heating Industrial Processes: Report Within IEA SHC Task33/IV,” University of Rome, Rome, Italy, Technical Report. http://task33.iea-shc.org/Data/Sites/1/publications/task33-Potential_for_Solar_Heat_in_Industrial_Processes.pdf
Lauterbach, C. , Schmitt, B. , Jordan, U. , and Vajen, K. , 2012, “ The Potential of Solar Heat for Industrial Processes in Germany,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 16(7), pp. 5121–5130. [CrossRef]
Huld, T. , Gottschalg, R. , Beyer, H. G. , and Topič, M. , 2010, “ Mapping the Performance of PV Modules, Effects of Module Type and Data Averaging,” Sol. Energy, 84(2), pp. 324–338. [CrossRef]
Carr, A. , and Pryor, T. , 2004, “ A Comparison of the Performance of Different PV Module Types in Temperate Climates,” Sol. Energy, 76(1–3), pp. 285–294. [CrossRef]
He, W. , Chow, T. , Ji, J. , Lu, J. , Pei, G. , and Chan, L. , 2006, “ Hybrid Photovoltaic and Thermal Solar-Collector Designed for Natural Circulation of Water,” Appl. Energy, 83(3), pp. 199–210. [CrossRef]
Mojiri, A. , Taylor, R. , Thomsen, E. , and Rosengarten, G. , 2013, “ Spectral Beam Splitting for Efficient Conversion of Solar Energy—A Review,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 28, pp. 654–663. [CrossRef]
Hjerrild, N. E. , Mesgari, S. , Crisostomo, F. , Scott, J. A. , Amal, R. , and Taylor, R. A. , 2016, “ Spectrum Splitting Using Gold and Silver Nanofluids for Photovoltaic/Thermal Collectors,” IEEE 43rd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), pp. 3518–3523.
Crisostomo, F. , Taylor, R. , Rosengarten, G. , Everett, V. , and Hawkes, E. , 2014, “ Performance of a Linear Fresnel-Based Concentrating Hybrid PV/T Collector Using Selective Spectral Beam Splitting,” 52nd Annual Conference, Baltimore, MD, June 22–27.
Crisostomo, F. , Taylor, R. A. , Mojiri, A. , Hawkes, E. R. , Surjadi, D. , and Rosengarten, G. , 2013, “ Beam Splitting System for the Development of a Concentrating Linear Fresnel Solar Hybrid PV/T Collector,” ASME Paper No. HT2013-17221.
Crisostomo, F. , Taylor, R. A. , Zhang, T. , Perez-Wurfl, I. , Rosengarten, G. , Everett, V. , and Hawkes, E. R. , 2014, “ Experimental Testing of SiNx/SiO2 Thin Film Filters for a Concentrating Solar Hybrid PV/T Collector,” Renewable Energy, 72, pp. 79–87. [CrossRef]
Hjerrild, N. E. , Mesgari, S. , Crisostomo, F. , Scott, J. A. , Amal, R. , and Taylor, R. A. , 2016, “ Hybrid PV/T Enhancement Using Selectively Absorbing Ag–SiO 2/Carbon Nanofluids,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 147, pp. 281–287. [CrossRef]
Crisostomo, F. , Becker, J. , Mesgari, S. , Hjerrild, N. , and Taylor, R. A. , 2015, “ Desing and On-Sun Testing of a Hybrid PVT Prototype Using a Nanofluid-Based Selective Absorption Filter,” 12th International Conference on the European Energy Market (EEM), Lisbon, Portugal, May 19–22, pp. 1–5.
An, W. , Wu, J. , Zhu, T. , and Zhu, Q. , 2016, “ Experimental Investigation of a Concentrating PV/T Collector With Cu9S5 Nanofluid Spectral Splitting Filter,” Appl. Energy, 184, pp. 197–206. [CrossRef]
Taylor, R. A. , Otanicar, T. , and Rosengarten, G. , 2012, “ Nanofluid-Based Optical Filter Optimization for PV/T Systems,” Light: Sci. Appl., 1(10), p. e34. [CrossRef]
Otanicar, T. P. , Theisen, S. , Norman, T. , Tyagi, H. , and Taylor, R. A. , 2015, “ Envisioning Advanced Solar Electricity Generation: Parametric Studies of CPV/T Systems With Spectral Filtering and High Temperature PV,” Appl. Energy, 140, pp. 224–233. [CrossRef]
Hassani, S. , Saidur, R. , Mekhilef, S. , and Taylor, R. A. , 2016, “ Environmental and Exergy Benefit of Nanofluid-Based Hybrid PV/T Systems,” Energy Convers. Manage., 123, pp. 431–444. [CrossRef]
Hassani, S. , Taylor, R. A. , Mekhilef, S. , and Saidur, R. , 2016, “ A Cascade Nanofluid-Based PV/T System With Optimized Optical and Thermal Properties,” Energy, 112, pp. 963–975. [CrossRef]
Mittal, T. , Saroha, S. , Bhalla, V. , Khullar, V. , Tyagi, H. , Taylor, R. A. , and Otanicar, T. P. , 2013, “ Numerical Study of Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) Hybrid Collector Using Nanofluids,” ASME Paper No. MNHMT2013-22090.
Pathak, M. , Sanders, P. , and Pearce, J. , 2014, “ Optimizing Limited Solar Roof Access by Exergy Analysis of Solar Thermal, Photovoltaic, and Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal Systems,” Appl. Energy, 120, pp. 115–124. [CrossRef]
Kew, P. , 1982, “ Heat Pumps for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery—A Summary of Required Technical and Economic Criteria,” J. Heat Recovery Syst., 2(3), pp. 283–296. [CrossRef]
Wallin, E. , and Berntsson, T. , 1994, “ Integration of Heat Pumps in Industrial Processes,” Heat Recovery Syst. CHP, 14(3), pp. 287–296. [CrossRef]
Aye, L. , Charters, W. , and Chaichana, C. , 2002, “ Solar Heat Pump Systems for Domestic Hot Water,” Sol. Energy, 73(3), pp. 169–175. [CrossRef]
Chaichana, C. , Aye, L. , and Charters, W. W. , 2003, “ Natural Working Fluids for Solar-Boosted Heat Pumps,” Int. J. Refrig., 26(6), pp. 637–643. [CrossRef]
Bany Mousa, O. , and Taylor, R. , 2016, “ Solar Thermal Sterilization: A TRNSYS Performance Analysis,” Asia Pacific Solar Research Conference, Sydney, Australia, Dec 4–6. http://apvi.org.au/solar-research-conference/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/O-Bany-Mousa-and-R-Taylor-Solar-Thermal-Sterilization-A-TRNSYS-Performance-Analysis.pdf
Staffell, I. , 2009, “ A Review of Domestic Heat Pump Coefficient of Performance,” Technical Report, accessed June 23, 2017, http://www.academia.edu/1073992/A_review_of_domestic_heat_pump_coefficient_of_performance
Johnson, R. K. , 2013, “ Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump,” U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Oak Ridge, TN, Technical Report No. NREL/SR-5500-56393.
Vengatesh, R. P. , and Rajan, S. E. , 2011, “ Investigation of Cloudless Solar Radiation With PV Module Employing Matlab-Simulink,” International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical and Computer Technology, Nagercoil, India, Mar. 23–24, pp. 141–147.
Nanjannavar, V. , Gandhi, P. , and Patel, N. , 2013, “ LabVIEW Based PV Cell Characterization and MPPT under Varying Temperature and Irradiance Conditions,” Nirma University International Conference on Engineering (NUiCONE), pp. 1–6.
Subudhi, B. , and Pradhan, R. , 2013, “ A Comparative Study on Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Power Systems,” IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy, 4(1), pp. 89–98. [CrossRef]
Koad, R. B. , Zobaa, A. F. , and El-Shahat, A. , 2017, “ A Novel MPPT Algorithm Based on Particle Swarm Optimization for Photovoltaic Systems,” IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy, 8(2), pp. 468–476. [CrossRef]
Klein, S. , 2012, “ TRNSYS 17—A Transient System Simulation Program-Volume 4—Mathematical Reference,” The Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.
Crisostomo, F. , Taylor, R. , Surjadi, D. , Mojiri, A. , Rosengarten, G. , and Hawkes, E. , 2015, “ Spectral Splitting Strategy and Optical Model for the Development of a Concentrating Hybrid PV/T Collector,” Appl. Energy, 141, pp. 238–246. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y. , Hu, P. , Zhang, Q. , and Chen, Z. , 2014, “ Thermodynamic and Optical Analysis for a CPV/T Hybrid System With Beam Splitter and Fully Tracked Linear Fresnel Reflector Concentrator Utilizing Sloped Panels,” Sol. Energy, 103, pp. 191–199. [CrossRef]
Renewable Resource Data Center, 2009, “ Reference Solar Spectral Irradiance: ASTM G-173,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, accessed July 21, 2018, http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/spectra/am1.5/astmg173/astmg173.html
Sabry, M. , Gottschalg, R. , Betts, T. , Shaltout, M. , Hassan, A. , El-Nicklawy, M. , and Infield, D. , 2002, “ Optical Filtering of Solar Radiation to Increase Performance of Concentrator Systems,” Conference Record of the Twenty-Ninth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 19–24, pp. 1588–1591.
Kandilli, C. , 2013, “ Performance Analysis of a Novel Concentrating Photovoltaic Combined System,” Energy Convers. Manage., 67, pp. 186–196. [CrossRef]
Crisostomo, F. , Hjerrild, N. , Mesgari, S. , Li, Q. , and Taylor, R. A. , 2017, “ A Hybrid PV/T Collector Using Spectrally Selective Absorbing Nanofluids,” Appl. Energy, 193, pp. 1–14. [CrossRef]
Hjerrild, N. E. , Mesgari, S. , Crisostomo, F. , Scott, J. A. , Amal, R. , Jiang, X. , and Taylor, R. A. , 2015, “ Selective Solar Absorption of Nanofluids for Photovoltaic/Thermal Collector Enhancement,” MRS Online Proc. Libr. Archive, 1779, pp. 53–58. [CrossRef]
Hjerrild, N. E. , Scott, J. A. , Amal, R. , and Taylor, R. A. , 2017, “ Exploring the Effects of Heat and UV Exposure on Glycerol-Based Ag–SiO2 Nanofluids for PV/T Applications,” Renewable Energy, 120, pp. 266–274. [CrossRef]
Hjerrild, N. E. , and Taylor, R. A. , 2017, “ Boosting Solar Energy Conversion With Nanofluids,” Phys. Today, 70(12), pp. 40–45. [CrossRef]
Ni, J. , Li, J. , An, W. , and Zhu, T. , 2018, “ Performance Analysis of Nanofluid-Based Spectral Splitting PV/T System in Combined Heating and Power Application,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 129, pp. 1160–1170. [CrossRef]
An, W. , Li, J. , Ni, J. , Taylor, R. A. , and Zhu, T. , 2017, “ Analysis of a Temperature Dependent Optical Window for Nanofluid-Based Spectral Splitting in PV/T Power Generation Applications,” Energy Convers. Manage., 151, pp. 23–31. [CrossRef]
EIA, 2016, “ International Energy Outlook 2016,” U.S. Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC, accessed July 21, 2018, https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/ieo/pdf/0484(2016).pdf


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Real load profile for one week in February

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

TRNSYS flow diagram for the proposed industrial application

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Coefficient of performance versus temperature lift for air source (triangles) and ground source (circles) heat pumps (data from Ref. [29])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) IV and power curves for different irradiation inputs, (b) IV and power curves for different cell temperatures inputs, and (c) current variation with irradiation and cell temperature using trnsys software

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Heat transfer fluid rate effect on PV cell temperature—Alice Springs/Australia

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Rooftop area proposed systems distribution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Various solar systems verification through annual energy balance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Global Annual GHI and DNI fraction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Solar outputs for various solar technologies (bars, which correspond to the left y-axis) and their load contribution (lines, with correspond to the right y-axis)—for Alice Springs/Australia (solid bars and open symbols) and Santiago/Chile (hashed bars and symbols)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Filter bandwidth effect on uncoupled PV/T splitting collector output (bars, which correspond to the left y-axis) and solar contribution (lines, with correspond to the right y-axis) for two PV cell types (solid bars and open symbols—Alice Springs, hashed bars and symbols—Santiago)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

(a) DNI ratio and (b) GHI with system solar contribution for different solar thermal to rooftop space ratio worldwide—side by side PV–ST system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

DNI ratio and system contribution for different beam split technologies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Annual solar output (bars, which correspond to the left y-axis) and solar contribution (lines, with correspond to the right y-axis) of the mono PVT split system in several locations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Various solar technologies solar output (bars, which correspond to the left y-axis) and their load contribution (lines, with correspondence to the right y-axis) in Chile/Santiago using the TVP collector (solid bars and open symbols) and the PTC collector (hashed bars and symbols)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

DNI ratio and system contribution for different ST to rooftop space ratio ((a) nonconcentrated—TVP collector and (b) a concentrated—PTC collector)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In