Design Innovation Paper

Design, Modeling, and Characterization of a 10 kWe Metal Halide High Flux Solar Simulator

[+] Author and Article Information
Nathan P. Siegel

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bucknell University,
1 Dent Drive,
Lewisburg, PA 17837
e-mail: nps004@bucknell.edu

Jeffrey P. Roba

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Bucknell University,
1 Dent Drive,
Lewisburg, PA 17837
e-mail: jpr027@bucknell.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received January 1, 2018; final manuscript received February 23, 2018; published online April 13, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Marc Röger.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 140(4), 045001 (Apr 13, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: SOL-18-1003; doi: 10.1115/1.4039658 History: Received January 01, 2018; Revised February 23, 2018

We present the design and characterization of a high flux solar simulator (HFSS) based on metal halide lamps and built from commercially available components. The HFSS that we present was developed to support the evaluation of a solar thermochemical reactor prototype. The HFSS consists of an array of four independent lamp/reflector modules aimed at a common target location. Each module contains one 2500 We lamp and one electroformed ellipsoidal reflector having an interfocal distance of 813 mm. The modules are oriented with an angle relative to the target surface normal vector of 24.5 deg. Design simulations predicted that the peak flux of this HFSS would be 2980 kWth/m2, with a total power delivered to a 6-cm target of 3.3 kWth, for a transfer efficiency of 33.3%. Experimental characterization of the HFSS using optical flux mapping and calorimetry showed that the peak flux at the focal plane reached 2890±170 kWth/m2, while the total power delivered was 3.5±0.21 kWth for a transfer efficiency of 35.3%. The HFSS was built at a material cost of ∼$2700.00/module and a total hardware cost of ∼$11,000.00 for the four-lamp array. A seven-lamp version of this HFSS is predicted to deliver 5.6 kWth to a 6 cm diameter target at a peak flux of 4900 kWth/m2 at a hardware cost of ∼$19,000.00 ($3400.00/kWth delivered, $1100.00/kWe).

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) A diagram of the water-splitting thermochemical reactor at SNL with the major components labeled and (b) a detailed cross section of the thermal receiver/reactor including the quartz dome covering the aperture

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic and dimensions of several electroformed ellipsoidal mirrors (Optiforms [13])

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Fig. 3

(a) An image of a single HFSS module and (b) an exploded drawing showing all components except for the electronic ballast

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Fig. 4

(a) A flux map of a single simulator module at the aperture plane when the optical axis of the simulator is parallel to the target surface normal vector, (b) the corresponding cross-sectional flux distribution, and (c) a summary of measured performance parameters for a 6 cm aperture diameter

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Fig. 5

Configurations for four and five lamp HFSS arrays

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Fig. 6

Four and five lamp simulated flux maps along with a summary of the key performance parameters

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Fig. 7

A four-lamp HFSS in the beam down configuration. Wiring and control hardware is routed over the top of the support structure. In addition, a camera and pyrometer may be positioned to view the aperture through the gap in the center of the array.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

A wiring diagram of the dual output ballast connected to two lamps along with associated cooling and safety circuits

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Fig. 9

(a) A picture of the full beam calorimeter in its flux mapping position used at SNL and (b) a picture of the water-cooled target in its flux mapping position

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Fig. 10

(a) The experimental flux map, (b) flux map cross section, and (c) summary of performance parameters for the four-lamp HFSS




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