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Research Papers

Evaluation of the Effect of Spar Cap Fiber Angle of Bending–Torsion Coupled Blades on the Aero-Structural Performance of Wind Turbines

[+] Author and Article Information
Özgün Şener

METUWind,
Center for Wind Energy,
Middle East Technical University,
Ankara 06800, Turkey
e-mail: osener@metu.edu.tr

Touraj Farsadi

METUWind,
Center for Wind Energy,
Middle East Technical University,
Ankara 06800, Turkey
e-mail: touraj.farsadi@metu.edu.tr

M. Ozan Gözcü

DTU Wind,
Technical University of Denmark,
Risø Campus,
Roskilde 4000, Denmark
e-mail: ozgo@dtu.dk

Altan Kayran

METUWind,
Center for Wind Energy,
Middle East Technical University,
Ankara 06800, Turkey
e-mail: akayran@metu.edu.tr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received March 23, 2017; final manuscript received January 31, 2018; published online March 20, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Yves Gagnon.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 140(4), 041004 (Mar 20, 2018) (18 pages) Paper No: SOL-17-1101; doi: 10.1115/1.4039350 History: Received March 23, 2017; Revised January 31, 2018

This paper presents a comprehensive study of the evaluation of the effect of spar cap fiber orientation angle of composite blades with induced bending–torsion coupling (IBTC) on the aero-structural performance wind turbines. Aero-structural performance of wind turbines with IBTC blades is evaluated with the fatigue load mitigation in the whole wind turbine system, tower clearances, peak stresses in the blades, and power generation of wind turbines. For this purpose, a full E-glass/epoxy reference blade has been designed, following the inverse design methodology for a 5-MW wind turbine. An E-glass/epoxy blade with IBTC and novel, hybrid E-glass/carbon/epoxy blades with IBTC have been designed and aeroelastic time-marching multibody simulations of the 5-MW turbine systems, with the reference blade and the blades with IBTC, have been carried out using six different randomly generated turbulent wind profiles. Fatigue-equivalent loads (FELs) in the wind turbine have been determined as an average of the results obtained from the time response of six different simulations. The results reveal that certain hybrid blade designs with IBTC are more effective in fatigue load mitigation than the E-glass–epoxy blade with IBTC, and besides the fiber orientation angle, sectional properties of hybrid blades must be adjusted accordingly using proper number of carbon/epoxy layers in the sections of the blade with IBTC, in order to simultaneously reduce generator power losses and the FEL.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Drive train of the 5-MW wind turbine in SWT

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Fig. 2

3D reference blade design

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Fig. 3

Flatwise bending stiffness and torsional stiffness of the reference blade and the 5-MW wind turbine blade of NREL

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Fig. 4

Interior nodes and the boundary node used for the generation of the super element

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Fig. 5

Connection of the slave retained nodes with the master FE nodes

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Fig. 6

Blade design with induced bending torsion coupling showing the main spar caps with off-axis UD laminae; θ= 5 deg, 10 deg, 15 deg, 20 deg

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Fig. 7

Comparison of flatwise bending stiffness of the reference blade and the blades with induced bending torsion coupling

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Fig. 8

Randomly generated turbulent wind profiles corresponding to seed 1: (a) SWT-TurbSim and (b) PHATAS-Swift

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Fig. 9

Hub–blade connection moments for the reference blade/PHATAS simulation/seed 1/spar cap fiber orientation angle = 15 deg

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Fig. 10

Time responses of hub–blade connection loads/PHATAS simulation/seed 1/spar cap fiber orientation angle = 15 deg: (a) bending moment—flapwise and (b) shear force—flapwise

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Fig. 11

Average fatigue-equivalent flapwise bending moment ratio at the hub–blade connection versus the spar cap fiber orientation angle: (a) SWT solution and (b) PHATAS solution

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Fig. 12

Main bearing 1 axial force versus time, Fx/SWT simulation/seed 1/spar cap fiber orientation angle = 15 deg

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Fig. 13

Average rotor shaft torque versus time/PHATAS simulation/average of seeds 1–6/spar cap fiber orientation angle = 15 deg

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Fig. 14

Two-stage planetary, one-stage parallel gear box model in SWT and planet carrier bearings [12]

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Fig. 15

Generator power/average of seeds 1–6/SWT simulation/spar cap fiber orientation angle = 15 deg

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Fig. 16

Generator power/average of seeds 1–6/PHATAS simulation/spar cap fiber orientation angle = 15 deg

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Fig. 17

Variation of the average generator power with the spar cap fiber orientation angle: (a) SWT solution and (b) PHATAS solution

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Fig. 18

Blade pitch angle versus time/SWT simulation/seed 1/spar cap fiber orientation angle = 15 deg

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Fig. 19

Blade pitch angle versus time/PHATAS simulation/seed 1/spar cap fiber orientation angle = 15 deg

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Fig. 20

Stress recovery time in SWT/reference blade/seed 1

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Fig. 21

Mean stress in the fiber direction (Pa) in the outermost face of the first ply: (a) reference blade and (b) bending–torsion coupling induced blade GF_1/Fiber orientation angle = 15 deg

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Fig. 22

Flapwise blade tip deflections versus time/PHATAS simulation/seed 1

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