0
Technical Brief

Comparison of Solar Tracking and Fixed-Tilt Photovoltaic Modules in Lodz

[+] Author and Article Information
Paulina Sawicka-Chudy

Department of Biophysics,
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of Rzeszow,
1 Pigonia Street,
Rzeszow 35-317, Poland
e-mail: sawicka61@wp.pl

Maciej Sibiński

Department of Semiconductor and Optoelectronics,
Lodz University of Technology,
211/215 Wólczańska Street,
Lodz 90-924, Poland

Marian Cholewa

Department of Biophysics,
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,
University of Rzeszow,
1 Pigonia Street,
Rzeszow 35-317, Poland

Ryszard Pawełek

Institute of Electrical Power Engineering,
Lodz University of Technology,
18/22 Stefanowskiego Street,
Lodz 90-924, Poland

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received January 31, 2017; final manuscript received January 16, 2018; published online February 20, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Geoffrey T. Klise.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 140(2), 024503 (Feb 20, 2018) (6 pages) Paper No: SOL-17-1044; doi: 10.1115/1.4039097 History: Received January 31, 2017; Revised January 16, 2018

The world energy consumption has exhibited high growth over the last several decades. Alternative energy sources like photovoltaic (PV) systems generate electricity, reduce pollution air, and have little environmental impact. The commonly used fixed-tilt solar panels, however, have low efficiency and high production cost. Thus, it takes a long time to obtain a return on the investment. Solar trackers increase the efficiency of PV systems and are therefore more attractive from a financial point of view. In order to design tracking systems that will be efficient, it is necessary to analyze the results during various periods during the year and over their lifespan. Thus, we performed a comparative study between fixed-tilt panels and the tracking system installed in Lodz, Poland. Fixed-tilt panels are at normal to the Earth's surface (90 deg from horizontal plane) and are attached to a building façade, azimuth 180 deg (S direction) with 15 cm ventilation gap so slight efficiency drop may be presumed. We performed short- and long-term analyses of the solar tracking and fixed-tilt systems, which allowed us to conclude that the panels tracking the sun had an additional gain of energy during the year as compared to the fixed-tilt panels. During some months, however, the solar tracking system did not produce as much energy as the fixed-tilt, vertically positioned panels. These results might be useful in designing and constructing solar tracking PV systems.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Sawicka-Chudy, P. , Sibiński, M. , Cholewa, M. , Klein, M. , Znajdek, K. , and Cenian, A. , 2018, “ Tests and Theoretical Analysis of a PVT Hybrid Collector Operating Under Various Insolation Conditions,” Acta Innovations, 26, pp. 62–74.
Bhuvaneswari, C. , Rajeswari, R. , and Kalaiarasan, C. , 2013, “ Analysis of Solar Energy Based Street Light With Auto Tracking System,” Int. J. Adv. Res. Electr., Electron. Instrum. Eng., 2(7), pp. 3422–3428.
Dhanabal, R. , Bharathi, V. , Ranjitha, R. , Ponni, A. , Deepthi, S. , and Mageshkannan, P. , 2013, “ Comparison of Efficiencies of Solar Tracker Systems With Static Panel Single-Axis Tracking System and Dual-Axis Tracking System With Fixed Mount,” Int. J. Eng. Technol., 5(2), pp. 1925–1933.
Das, P. K. , Habib, M. A. , and Mynuddin, M. , 2015, “ Microcontroller Based Automatic Solar Tracking System With Mirror Booster,” Int. J. Sustainable Green Energy, 4(4), pp. 125–136.
Şenpinar, A. , and Cebeci, M. , 2012, “ Evaluation of Power Output for Fixed and Two-Axis Tracking PV Arrays,” Appl. Energy, 92, pp. 677–685. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Q.-X. , Yu, H.-Y. , Zhang, Q.-Y. , Zhang, Z.-Y. , Shao, C.-H. , and Yang, D. , 2015, “ A Solar Automatic Tracking System That Generates Power for Lighting Greenhouses,” Energies, 8(7), pp. 7367–7380. [CrossRef]
Helwa, N. H. , Bahgat, A. B. G. , Shafee, A. M. R. E. , and Shenawy, E. T. E. , 2010, “ Maximum Collectable Solar Energy by Different Solar Tracking Systems,” Energy Sources, 22(1), pp. 23–34.
Bushong, S., 2016, “ Advantages and Disadvantages of a Solar Tracker System,” Solar Power World, Cleveland, OH, accessed Feb. 2, 2018, https://www.solarpowerworldonline.com/2016/05/advantages-disadvantages-solar-tracker-system/
Vieira, R. G. , Guerra, F. K. O. M. V. , Vale, M. R. B. G. , and Araújo, M. M. , 2016, “ Comparative Performance Analysis Between Static Solar Panels and Single-Axis Tracking System on a Hot Climate Region Near to the Equator,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 64, pp. 672–681. [CrossRef]
Roth, P. , Georgiev, A. , and Boudinov, H. , 2005, “ Cheap Two-Axis Sun Following Device,” Energy Convers. Manage., 46(7–8), pp. 1179–1192. [CrossRef]
Konar, A. , and Mandal, A. K. , 1991, “ Microprocessor Based Automatic Sun-Tracker,” IEE Proc.-A: Sci., Meas. Technol., 138(4), pp. 237–241. [CrossRef]
Kalogirou, S. A. , 1996, “ Design and Construction of a One-Axis Sun-Tracking,” Sol. Energy, 57(6), pp. 465–469. [CrossRef]
Al-Mohamad, A. , 2004, “ Efficiency Improvements of Photo-Voltaic Panels Using a Sun-Tracking System,” Appl. Energy, 79(3), pp. 345–354. [CrossRef]
Stern, M. , Duran, G. , Fourer, G. , Mackamul, K. , Whalen, W. , Loo, M. V. , and West, R. , 1998, “ Development of a Low Cost Integrated 20-kW-AC Solar Tracking Subarray for Grid-Connected PV Power System Applications,” National Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Golden, CO, Final Technical Report No. NRELISR-520-24759.
Tomson, T. , 2008, “ Discrete Two-Positional Tracking of Solar Collectors,” Renewable Energy, 33(3), pp. 400–405. [CrossRef]
Lorenzo, E. , Perez, M. , Ezpeleta, A. , and Acedo, J. , 2002, “ Design of Tracking Photovoltaic Systems With a Single Vertical Axis,” Prog. Photovolt.: Res. Appl., 10(8), pp. 533–543. [CrossRef]
DERlab, e. V., 2016, “ European Distributed Energy Resources Laboratories,” Kassel, Germany, accessed Sept. 7, 2016, http://der-lab.net/
Sun Sol, 2013, “ Sun Sol,” Sun Sol, Gdańsk, Poland, accessed Sept. 7, 2016, http://sunsol.pl/produkty/
SF, 2015, “ Solar Fabrik,” Solar Fabrik GmbH & Co. KG, Wiesen, Germany, accessed Sept. 7, 2016, http://solar-fabrik.de/produkte
Deger, 1999, “ Product Overview,” DEGERenergie GmbH & Co. KG, Horb am Neckar, Germany, accessed Sept. 7, 2016, http://www.degerenergie.de/en/product-overview.html
Mienski, R. , Pawelek, R. , Gburczyk, P. , Wasiak, I. , and Degner, T. , 2008, “ DER Laboratory in Institute of Electrical Power Engineering of Technical University of Lodz,” IEEE 13th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP), Wollongong, Australia, Sept. 28–Oct. 1, pp. 1–6.
Pawelek, R. , Wasiak, I. , Mienski, R. , Gburczyk, P. , and Kelm, P. , 2011, “ Smart Grid Test Laboratory in the Technical University of Lodz – Operating Experience,” Sixth All-Russia International Scientific and Technical Conference Energetics: Power Engineering Administration, Quality and Efficiency of Energy Resources Use, Blagoveshchensk, Russia, May 25–27, pp. 344–349.
Durisch, W. , Bitnar, B. , Mayor, J.-C. , Kiess, H. , Lamb, K.-h. , and Close, J. , 2007, “ Efficiency Model for Photovoltaic Modules and Demonstration of Its Application to Energy Yield Estimation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 91(1), pp. 79–84. [CrossRef]
Lazaroiua, G. C. , Longob, M. , Rosciac, M. , and Paganod, M. , 2015, “ Comparative Analysis of Fixed and Sun Tracking Low Power PV Systems Considering Energy Consumption,” Energy Convers. Manage., 92, pp. 143–148. [CrossRef]
Garcia, Y. , Diaz, O. , and Agudelo, C. , 2015, “ Performance of a Solar PV Tracking System on Tropic Regions,” WIT Trans. Ecol. Environ., 195, pp. 197–207.
Perez, M. A. , and Zapata, J. , 2014, “ Analysis of Short-Term and Long-Term Characteristics of PV Power Production,” IEEE 23rd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), Istanbul, Turkey, June 1–4, pp. 2478–2483.
Patka, J., 2008, “ Współrze˛dne geograficzne polskich miast,” Żagański Serwis Astronomiczny, Żagań, Poland, accessed Jan. 7, 2018, http://astronomia.zagan.pl/art/wspolrzedne.html
Huld T., Müller R., and Gambardella A., 2012, “ A New Solar Radiation Database for Estimating PV Performance in Europe and Africa,” Solar Energy, 86(6), pp. 1803–1815.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Fixed-tilt panels (a) and tracking system panels (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of installation of the fixed-tilt and tracking system panels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Power generated as the function of time on a cloudy day and (b) power generated as the function of time on a sunny day

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Hourly electrical energy produced by the two systems for cloudy conditions and (b) hourly electrical energy produced by the two systems for clear sky conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Cumulative amount of daily electrical energy produced for cloudy (a) and clear and (b) sky conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) Calculated efficiency values of systems during a cloudy day and (b) calculated momentary efficiency values of systems on a sunny day

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Calculated mean daily efficiency values of the solar tracking and fixed-tilt panels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Voltage comparison of fixed-tilt panels and tracking system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Current comparison of fixed-tilt panels and tracking system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Monthly energy generated in 2010, 2011, 2015

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Energy generated by each system and the two systems combined in 2010, 2011, and 2015 and the increase in energy produced by the tracking system compared to fixed-tilt panels

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In