Research Papers

Effect of Energy Management of a Grid Connected Photovoltaic/Battery/Load System on the Optimal Photovoltaic Placement on a National Scale: The Case of Turkey

[+] Author and Article Information
Huseyin Akdemir

Department of Electrical Engineering,
Yildiz Technical University,
Davutpasa Campus,
Istanbul 34220, Turkey
e-mail: hakdemir@yildiz.edu.tr

Ali Durusu

Department of Electrical Engineering,
Yildiz Technical University,
Davutpasa Campus,
Istanbul 34220, Turkey
e-mail: adurusu@yildiz.edu.tr

Ali Erduman

Department of Electrical and Electronics
Hakkari University,
Hakkari 30000, Turkey
e-mail: alierduman@hakkari.edu.tr

Ismail Nakir

Department of Electrical Engineering,
Yildiz Technical University,
Davutpasa Campus,
Istanbul 34220, Turkey
e-mail: inakir@yildiz.edu.tr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received March 16, 2017; final manuscript received December 6, 2017; published online February 20, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Geoffrey T. Klise.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 140(2), 021009 (Feb 20, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: SOL-17-1092; doi: 10.1115/1.4039077 History: Received March 16, 2017; Revised December 06, 2017

Photovoltaic (PV) hybrid systems and their optimal energy management are still being actively studied. PV systems must be positioned at optimal tilt and azimuth angles to obtain maximum system performance. This paper presents the effect of energy management of a grid-connected PV-battery-load system on optimal PV placement using a linear programing (LP) method. The optimal placement of PV arrays aims to minimize the electricity cost of a fixed PV system for investors by considering monthly average daily global radiation, ambient temperature, wind speed, demand management constraints, and electricity tariffs in Turkey. The analysis is extended to consider 68 locations across Turkey. The analysis reveals that the optimal placement (optimal tilt and azimuth angle) can be different from that of previous studies because of multiple objective considerations. The optimal tilt angle results are lower than the local latitude in the range of 0 deg–8 deg in all regions. Furthermore, the optimal azimuth angle results are in the range of 6 deg–24 deg westbound throughout Turkey. These results can play a significant role for investments in the design of grid-connected PV-battery-load systems.

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Fig. 1

Flowchart of the methodology

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Fig. 2

Verification of the calculated data with the actual data for Istanbul

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Fig. 3

Solar energy potential atlas (GEPA) for Turkey

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Fig. 4

Schematic of the grid-connected PV-battery-load system

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Fig. 5

Load demand profile

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Fig. 6

Relationship between the local latitude and the optimum tilt angle (negative values show that optimal tilt is below the latitude)

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Fig. 7

Variation of the optimal azimuth results over the studied regions




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