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Research Papers

Concentrating and Nonconcentrating Slurry and Fixed-Bed Solar Reactors for the Degradation of Herbicide Isoproturon

[+] Author and Article Information
Anoop Verma

School of Energy and Environment,
Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology,
Patiala 147004, India
e-mail: anoop.kumar@thapar.edu

N. Tejo Prakash

Professor
School of Energy and Environment,
Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology,
Patiala 147004, India
e-mail: ntejoprakash@thapar.edu

Amrit Pal Toor

Professor
University Institute of Chemical Engineering
and Technology,
Panjab University,
Chandigarh 160014, India
e-mail: aptoor@yahoo.co.in

Palak Bansal

School of Energy and Environment,
Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology,
Patiala 147004, India
e-mail: palak.bansal@thapar.edu

Vikas Kumar Sangal

Chemical Engineering Department,
Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology,
Patiala 147004, India
e-mail: vksangal@gmail.com

Ajay Kumar

Computer Engineering Department,
Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology,
Patiala 147004, India
e-mail: ajayloura@gmail.com

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received May 12, 2017; final manuscript received December 19, 2017; published online January 22, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Gerardo Diaz.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 140(2), 021006 (Jan 22, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: SOL-17-1179; doi: 10.1115/1.4038849 History: Received May 12, 2017; Revised December 19, 2017

This research demonstrates scale-up studies with the development of concentrating and nonconcentrating solar reactors employing suspended and supported TiO2 for the degradation of herbicide isoproturon (IPU) with total working volume of 6 L. Novel cement beads were used as support material for fixing the catalyst particles. In the case of nonconcentrating slurry reactor, 85% degradation of IPU was achieved after 3 h of treatment with four number of catalyst recycling, whereas nonconcentrating fixed-bed reactor using TiO2 immobilized cement beads took relatively more time (10 h) for the degradation of IPU (65%) due to mass transfer limitations, but it overcame the implication of catalyst filtration post-treatment. The immobilized catalyst was successfully recycled for ten times boosting its commercial applications. High photon flux with concentrating parabolic trough collector (PTC) using fixed catalysis approach with same immobilized catalyst substantially reduced the treatment time to 4 h for achieving 91% degradation of IPU. Working and execution of pilot-scale reactors are very fruitful to extend these results for a technology development with the present leads.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Actual photographs of TiO2 immobilized cement beads with same magnification: (a) freshly coated and (b) after eighth recycle along with (c) scanning electron microscopy image and (d) electron dispersive spectroscopy data of freshly coated beads

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Fig. 2

(a) Pilot-scale slurry reactor and (b) actual photograph of the setup

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Fig. 3

(a) Pilot-scale nonconcentrating fixed-bed reactor and (b) actual photograph of the setup

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Fig. 4

Representation of solar parabolic collector (PTC) at an angle of inclination of (a) 40 deg, (b) 0 deg, (c) 20 deg, and (d) 40 deg, respectively

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Fig. 5

Photocatalytic degradation of IPU using slurry and fixed-bed approach at lab-scale

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Fig. 6

(a) Photocatalytic degradation of IPU using pilot-scale slurry reactor and (b) effect of area/volume on the photocatalytic degradation of IPU (TiO2 = 0.5 g L−1, C0 = 25 mg L−1, and pH = 5.0)

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Fig. 7

Photocatalytic degradation of IPU using pilot-scale nonconcentrating fixed-bed reactor (C0= 25 mg L−1 and pH = 5.0)

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Fig. 8

Recyclability studies of suspended and supported catalyst

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Fig. 9

(a) Photocatalytic degradation of IPU using pilot-scale concentrating fixed-bed reactor (PTC), (b) effect of flow rate on the degradation of IPU in pilot-scale fixed-bed reactor, PTC, and (c) pictorial representation of TiO2 immobilized cement beads: (a) fresh batch and (b) after tenth cycle

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Fig. 10

(a) COD reduction along with the generation of ammonium ions during the photocatalytic degradation IPU in pilot-scale fixed-bed reactor, (b) intermediates formed during the photocatalytic degradation of IPU, and (c) expected m/z fragments that could be formed during the degradation of IPU

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Fig. 11

Performance evaluation of pilot-scale reactors

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