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Research Papers

Quantitative Assessment of Phase Change Material Utilization for Building Cooling Load Abatement in Composite Climatic Condition

[+] Author and Article Information
Rajat Saxena

Centre for Energy Studies,
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi,
Hauz Khas, Delhi 110016, India

Kumar Biplab

GreenTree Building Energy Pvt. Ltd,
Noida 201301, India

Dibakar Rakshit

Centre for Energy Studies,
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi,
Hauz Khas, Delhi 110016, India
e-mail: dibakar@iitd.ac.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING. Manuscript received March 27, 2017; final manuscript received September 23, 2017; published online October 17, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Jorge Gonzalez.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 140(1), 011001 (Oct 17, 2017) (15 pages) Paper No: SOL-17-1111; doi: 10.1115/1.4038047 History: Received March 27, 2017; Revised September 23, 2017

The global trend of energy consumption shows that buildings consume around 48% of the total energy, of which, over 50% is for heating and cooling applications. This study elucidates on cooling load reduction with phase change material (PCM) incorporation in a building envelope. PCM provides thermal shielding due to isothermal heat storage during phase change. PCM selection depends upon its phase change temperature, thermal capacity, and thermal conductivity, as they play a vital role in assessing their impact on energy conservation in buildings. The uniqueness of this study underlies in the fact that it focuses on the utilization of PCM for New Delhi (28.54°N, 77.19°E) climatic conditions and adjudges the suitability of three commercially available PCMs, based on the overall heat load reduction and their characteristic charging/discharging. The study aims at finding an optimum melting and solidification temperature of the PCM such that it may be discharged during the night by releasing the heat gained during the day and mark its suitability. The results of mathematical modeling indicate that as per the design conditions, the melting/solidification temperature of 34 °C is suitable for New Delhi to absorb the peak intensity of solar irradiation during summer. Based on the thermophysical properties in literature (Pluss Advanced Technologies Pvt. Ltd., 2015, “Technical Data Sheet of savE® HS29, PLUSS-TDS-DOC-304 Version R0,” Pluss Advanced Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon, India. Pluss Advanced Technologies Pvt. Ltd., 2015, “Technical Data Sheet of savE® OM32, PLUSS-TDS-DOC-394 Version R0,” Pluss Advanced Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon, India. Pluss Advanced Technologies Pvt. Ltd., 2012, “Technical Data Sheet - savEVR HS34, Doc:305,” Pluss Advanced Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon, India), mathematical modeling showed HS34 to be suitable for New Delhi among the three PCMs. To ratify this, characteristic charging and discharging of HS34 is tested experimentally, using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The results showed that HS34 is a heterogeneous mixture of hydrated salts having super-cooling of 6 °C, reducing its peak solidification temperature to 30.52 °C during the cooling cycle also making it unsuitable for peak summers in New Delhi.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Average monthly minimum and maximum temperature for New Delhi

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Fig. 2

Test room specifications

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Fig. 3

(a) and (b) Schematic diagram of wall cross section and roof cross section with PCM

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Fig. 4

Incident solar radiation on different surfaces

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Fig. 5

Variation of temperature acting as driving potential for heat transfer

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Fig. 6

Electrical circuit of a composite wall

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Fig. 7

Heat flux entering the room through different walls and roof (without PCM)

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Fig. 8

Validation of the theoretical model to experimental results

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Fig. 9

Heat flux entering through south wall with and without PCMs

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Fig. 10

Heat flux entering through west wall with and without PCMs

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Fig. 11

Heat flux entering through east wall with and without PCMs

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Fig. 12

Heat flux entering through north wall with and without PCMs

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Fig. 13

Heat flux entering through roof wall with and without PCMs

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Fig. 14

Comparative heat gain with different PCMs

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Fig. 15

Cumulative heat stored in HS29

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Fig. 16

Cumulative heat stored in OM32

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Fig. 17

Cumulative heat stored in HS34

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Fig. 18

(a) Inside temperature comparison for PCMs during last week of December. (b) Inside temperature comparison for PCMs during first week of March. (c) Inside temperature comparison for PCMs during first week of September.

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Fig. 19

Heating and cooling curve for HS34 from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC)

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