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Research Papers

10-MW Wind Turbine Performance Under Pitching and Yawing Motion

[+] Author and Article Information
Vladimir Leble

School of Engineering,
University of Glasgow,
James Watt South Building,
Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
e-mail: v.leble.1@research.gla.ac.uk

George Barakos

Professor
School of Engineering,
University of Glasgow,
James Watt South Building,
Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
e-mail: George.Barakos@glasgow.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received March 19, 2016; final manuscript received April 17, 2017; published online May 11, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Douglas Cairns.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 139(4), 041003 (May 11, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: SOL-16-1132; doi: 10.1115/1.4036497 History: Received March 19, 2016; Revised April 17, 2017

The possibility of a wind turbine entering vortex ring state (VRS) during pitching oscillations is explored in this paper. The work first validated the employed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, and continued with computations at fixed yaw of the NREL phase VI wind turbine. The aerodynamic performance of the rotor was computed using the helicopter multiblock (HMB) flow solver. This code solves the Navier–Stokes equations in integral form using the arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian formulation for time-dependent domains with moving boundaries. With confidence on the established method, yawing and pitching oscillations were performed suggesting partial vortex ring state during pitching motion. The results also show the strong effect of the frequency and amplitude of oscillations on the wind turbine performance.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Hypothetical flow states of FOWT during pitching motion. From left to right: windmill state, turbulent wake state, vortex ring state and propeller state. (Adapted with permission from Tran and Kim [24]. Copyright 2015 by Elsevier.)

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Fig. 2

Grid employed for the NREL phase VI rotor without the tower: (a) slice through the volume close to the blade surface, (b) surface mesh, and (c) computational domain (part of the boundaries removed for clarity)

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Fig. 3

Grid employed for the DTU 10 MW RWT rotor without the tower: (a) slice through the volume close to the blade surface, (b) surface mesh, (c) computational domain for most of the cases, and (d) computational domain for case A2

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Fig. 4

Results of mesh convergence study. Thrust coefficient and power coefficient as function of the grid size. (a) Thrust coefficient and (b) power coefficient.

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Fig. 5

Regions of instrumentation and tower influence on measured pressure. Definitions of positive yaw and azimuth angles are also included. (a) Boom and instrumentation wake interference and (b) regions of rotor plane where pressure measurements are influenced by instrumentation and tower. (Adapted with permission from Hand [16]. Copyright 2001 by National Renewable Energy Laboratory.)

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Fig. 6

Comparison between experimental data and CP values at different spanwise stations for various yaw misalignments: (a) 46.6% R, yaw 0 deg, (b) 63.3% R, yaw 0 deg, (c) 95.0% R, yaw 0 deg, (d) 46.6% R, yaw 10 deg, (e) 63.3% R, yaw 10 deg, (f) 95.0% R, yaw 10 deg, (g) 46.6% R, yaw 30 deg, (h) 63.3% R, yaw 30 deg, and (i) 95.0% R, yaw 30 deg

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Fig. 7

Snapshot of the flow field for the atmospheric boundary layer inflow case (A3). Contours of axial velocity W (m/s), and iso-surface of Q = 0.05 criterion (see Eq. (2) for definition of Q).

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Fig. 8

Shape of the rigid and deformed rotor of DTU 10 MW RWT

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Fig. 9

Fixed yaw test cases: (a) employed notation for yaw angles, and (b) thrust and power as function of the rotor revolution

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Fig. 10

Power as function of time (a) and yawing amplitude (b)

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Fig. 11

Instantaneous vortices visualized with the iso-surfaces of Q = 0.05 criterion colored by the pressure coefficient CP. Yawing amplitude 3 deg, and yawing period 8.8 s. (a) Yaw−3 deg, (b) yaw 0 deg, (c) yaw 3 deg, and (d) yaw 0 deg (see figure online for color).

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Fig. 12

Yaw angle and yaw angular velocity as function of time

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Fig. 13

Thrust and power as function of time (a) and pitching amplitude (b)

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Fig. 14

Instantaneous vortices visualized with the iso-surfaces of Q = 0.05 criterion colored by the pressure coefficient CP. Pitching period 8.8 s, pitching amplitude 3 deg (a)–(d), and 5 deg (e)–(h). (a) Pitch −3 deg, (b) pitch 0 deg, (c) pitch 3 deg, (d) pitch 0 deg, (e) pitch −5 deg, (f) pitch 0 deg, (g) pitch 5 deg, and (h) pitch 0 deg (see figure online for color).

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Fig. 15

Sinusoidal pitch test cases. Definition of the employed notation for pitch angles (a), and (b) the pitch angle and pitch angular velocity as function of time for pitching amplitude 3deg.

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Fig. 16

Estimated ratio of induced velocity as function of inflow velocity ratio (a) and ratio of inflow velocity as function of time (b) for pitching wind turbines with pitching amplitude of 3 deg and 5 deg

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