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Research Papers

Design of Carbon-Neutral Residential Communities in Kuwait

[+] Author and Article Information
Baqer Ameer

Building Systems Program,
University of Colorado,
Boulder, CO 80309;
Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research,
P.O. Box 24885,
Safat 13109, Kuwait

Moncef Krarti

Building Systems Program,
University of Colorado,
Boulder, CO 80309

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received February 27, 2016; final manuscript received January 11, 2017; published online March 16, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Jorge Gonzalez.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 139(3), 031008 (Mar 16, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: SOL-16-1102; doi: 10.1115/1.4036054 History: Received February 27, 2016; Revised January 11, 2017

In this paper, a general methodology for designing carbon-neutral residential communities is presented. Both energy efficiency measures and renewable energy technologies are considered in the design approach. First, energy end-uses for the buildings within the community are optimized based on a set of cost-effective energy efficiency measures that are selected based on a life-cycle cost analysis. Then, renewable energy technologies are considered to meet the energy needs for the residential community and ensure carbon-neutrality on an annual basis. The methodology is applied to design optimal and carbon-neutral hybrid electrical generation systems for three Kuwaiti residential communities with different sizes and energy efficiency designs. For Kuwait, it is found that wind turbines can cost-effectively generate significant electricity to meet most of the energy needs for the residential communities and thus reducing the country's reliance on fuel-based power plants. Specifically, it is found that wind turbines can generate electricity at a cost of $0.068/kWh well below the current grid power production costs of $0.103/kWh. Moreover, the analysis indicates that concentrated solar power (CSP) can be utilized to achieve carbon-neutral residential communities but at a levelized energy cost of $0.13/kWh slightly lower than the current grid power generation and distribution costs of $0.133/kWh.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Kuwait map, Ref. [21] showing locations of analyzed systems (in circles) by Al-Nassar [15] and the location (in star) selected for the hybrid systems evaluated in this study. Annual average wind speed and daily average global horizontal solar radiation are provided for all locations [22].

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Fig. 2

Flowchart of the design approach for hybrid systems of residential communities in Kuwait

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Fig. 3

(a) Monthly wind speed at 10 m height and (b) daily global horizontal radiation

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Fig. 4

(a) Main end-use annual energy distribution and (b) peak load distribution for the three models

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Fig. 5

Schematic diagram for the CSP plant with TES system considered in this study

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Fig. 6

(a) Monthly electricity produced by the wind turbine, grid purchases, and average electrical load for an optimal DG system associated with 2000-unit residential community and (b) variation of LCOE versus percent savings in CO2 emissions for various hybrid DG system options

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Fig. 7

Variation of LCOE versus renewable fraction for different power generation systems

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Fig. 8

Comparative analysis in initial cost reduction of hybrid generation systems for buildings constructed using energy efficiency code-2010 and optimal design for three sizes of residential communities in Kuwait. The savings are estimated relative to buildings constructed using the original Kuwaiti energy efficiency code-1983.

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Fig. 9

Savings in CO2 emissions for power generation systems when residential community buildings are constructed using code-2010 and optimal design specifications instead of using code-1983

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Fig. 10

Impact of grid electricity price and average wind speed on the optimal DG system for a 2000-unit residential community in Kuwait

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Fig. 11

Impact of grid electricity price and average wind speed on the optimal DG system for a 2000-unit residential community in Kuwait when the PV installed cost is reduced by 50% relative to the baseline

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Fig. 12

Annual hourly variations of absorbed, transferred to power plant, stored energy, and electrical output of 35-MW CSP plant in Kuwait

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Fig. 13

Daily profiles for 35-MW CSP plant electricity output and for load requirements associated with a 2000-unit residential community with three building designs

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Fig. 14

Variations of conventional generation cost and LCOE obtained from three CSP plants as functions of fuel cost in Kuwait

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