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Review Article

A Perspective of Energy Codes and Regulations for the Buildings of the Future

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael Rosenberg

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,
2032 Todd Street,
Eugene, OR 97405
e-mail: michael.rosenberg@pnnl.gov

Duane Jonlin

Seattle Department of
Construction and Inspections,
P.O. Box 34019,
Seattle, WA 98124
e-mail: duane.jonlin@seattle.gov

Steven Nadel

American Council for an
Energy-Efficient Economy,
529 14th Street NW #600,
Washington, DC 20045
e-mail: snadel@aceee.org

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received May 2, 2016; final manuscript received September 23, 2016; published online October 13, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Patrick E. Phelan. The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States government purposes.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 139(1), 010801 (Oct 13, 2016) (6 pages) Paper No: SOL-16-1202; doi: 10.1115/1.4034825 History: Received May 02, 2016; Revised September 23, 2016

Today's building energy codes focus on prescriptive requirements for features of buildings that are directly controlled by design and construction teams and verifiable by municipal inspectors. Although these code requirements have had a significant impact, they fail to influence a large slice of the building energy use pie—including not only miscellaneous plug loads, cooking equipment, and commercial/industrial processes but the maintenance and optimization of the code-mandated systems as well. Currently, code compliance is verified only through the end of construction, and there are no limits or consequences for the actual energy used in a building after it is occupied. In the future, our suite of energy regulations will likely expand to include building efficiency, energy use, or carbon emission budgets over their full life cycle. Intelligent building systems, extensive renewable energy, and a transition from fossil fuel to electric heating systems will likely be required to meet ultralow-energy targets. This paper considers short and long-term trends in the building industry, lays out the authors' perspectives on how buildings may evolve over the course of the 21st century, and discusses the roles that codes and regulations will play in shaping those buildings of the future.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Improvement in the residential and nonresidential energy codes since 1975

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Improvements in nonresidential energy codes with projections to 2030

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Nationally weighted end use cost breakdown for new construction

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