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Research Papers

Validation of Direct Beam Irradiance Measurements From Rotating Shadowband Irradiometers in a Region With Different Atmospheric Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Norbert Geuder

Faculty of Civil Engineering, Building Physics,
and Business Management,
Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart,
Schellingstr. 24,
Stuttgart 70174, Germany
e-mail: norbert.geuder@hft-stuttgart.de

Roman Affolter

CSP Services,
Paseo de Almería 73, 2a,
Almería 04001, Spain
e-mail: r.affolter@cspservices.de

Olaf Goebel

Department Hamm 1, Energy Technology,
Hochschule Hamm-Lippstadt,
Marker Allee 76-78,
Hamm 59063, Germany
e-mail: olaf.goebel@hshl.de

Basel Dahleh

Masdar Power,
P.O. Box 54115,
Abu Dhabi 54115, UAE
e-mail: bdahleh@masdar.ae

Mohamed Al Khawaja

Masdar Power,
P.O. Box 54115,
Abu Dhabi 54115, UAE
e-mail: m.alkhawaja@gmail.com

Stefan Wilbert

German Aerospace Center (DLR),
Institute of Solar Research,
Plataforma Solar de Almería,
Ctra. de Senés s/n km 4,
Apartado 39,
Almería 04001, Spain
e-mail: stefan.wilbert@dlr.de

Benedikt Pape

SolarMillennium AG,
Nägelsbachstr. 33,
Erlangen 91052, Germany
e-mail: pape@solar-millennium.de

Benedikt Pulvermueller

SolarMillennium AG,
Nägelsbachstr. 33,
Erlangen 91052, Germany
e-mail: pulvermueller@solar-millennium.de

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received February 16, 2011; final manuscript received October 19, 2015; published online July 28, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Philippe Blanc.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 138(5), 051007 (Jul 28, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: SOL-11-1063; doi: 10.1115/1.4034070 History: Received February 16, 2011; Revised October 19, 2015

Rotating shadowband irradiometers (RSIs) are a common type of radiation sensors for measurement of direct normal irradiance (DNI) at remote sites where daily maintenance of the instruments is not feasible or practicable. Their primordial lower accuracy due to systematic deviations of the photodiode response can be improved significantly with a thorough calibration of each RSI against high precision sensors and application of suitable corrections on the raw data. With different available correction functions for the systematic errors, RSI data coincide with first class reference sensors within 2–3% root mean square deviation (RMSD) for 10 min averages of DNI and meet the annual irradiation sum within 1.5%. Such comparisons of RSI data to reference irradiances have only been published for a small number of sites. To endorse the credibility of RSI measurements, it has to be shown that these accuracies derived for certain locations are also valid at other sites with differing atmospheric conditions. Therefore, a parallel measurement campaign with six RSIs and a reference station with first class and secondary standard instrumentation has been performed in the in the extreme climate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The results of this comparison are presented in this paper. The stated empiric accuracy could be validated and confirmed for the UAE.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

“RSI” for remote site measurements (left) and high-precision equipment used for the high-precision reference irradiance measurements (right)

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Fig. 2

RSI calibration equipment operated by DLR on the PSA in Spain

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Fig. 3

Variation of the RSI calibration factor CF as detected on recalibration of 30 sensors after a period of up to around 4 years: relative drift of CF over time (left) and corresponding relative variation per year (right)

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Fig. 4

Contemporaneous and parallel irradiance measurements with RSIs (on the right) and reference sensors on a solar tracker (left) at one location in UAE inland desert about 130 km from the coastline

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Fig. 5

Absolute deviation of the DNI of six analyzed RSIs from the reference after application of common and additional corrections, in dependence on the reference signal: with calibration derived at PSA, Spain, (left) and with local calibration in UAE (right)

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Fig. 6

Relative deviation of 10 min averages of DNI of six analyzed RSIs from the reference after application of common and additional corrections, in dependence on the reference DNI: with calibration derived at PSA, Spain, (left) and with local calibration in UAE (right)

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Fig. 7

Deviation of the daily sum of DNI as determined by the RSIs from the reference value for two measurement periods in summer 2009 and winter 2009/2010. Thin lines belong to data after the common corrections from Secs. 2.1.1 and 2.1.2. Thick lines (denoted with c) correspond to data with these corrections plus an additional correction. The effect of dew on the pyrheliometer entrance window on the deviation is also shown (gray thick line, right).

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Fig. 8

Deviation of the daily sum of DNI as determined by the RSIs #1 and #6 from the reference value for two measurement periods in winter and summer 2010. Thin lines belong to data after the common corrections from Secs. 2.1.1 and 2.1.2. Thick lines (denoted with c) correspond to data with these corrections plus an additional correction. The effect of dew on the pyrheliometer entrance window on the deviation is also shown (gray thick line, left).

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